CONSTRUCTION OF BATTERY CHARGE CONTROL FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

CONSTRUCTION OF BATTERY CHARGE CONTROL FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 

Background of the study  

A charge controller is an essential part of any alternative energy system. In its simplest form, a charge controller's job is to make sure the power (such as a solar panel) 'plays nice' with the load (such as a battery). The simplest implementation of this is a single diode placed in between a solar panel and battery. This ensures that the battery does not discharge into solar panel at night. A more sophisticated implementation will be adding the ability for the charge controller to disconnect the solar panel when the batteries are fully charged in order to prevent over-charging damage to the batteries (James and Dunlop, 1991).

The current version of the open source free charge controller is a converter for charging batteries, A bulk converter steps down voltage from a higher voltage level to a lower voltage level. In this case, it would step voltage down from the 18volts of a solar panel to the 12volts of a battery (Harrington and Dunlop, 1992). Since the converter is software controlled, it can be programmed to charge any battery chemistry, change it drive frequency to achieve maximum conversion efficiency as well as implement MPPT to allow a solar panel to deliver maximum power, all without any changes to hardware (Robert and Isaac, 2007). A charge controller also called charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents over charging and may prevent over voltage, which can reduce battery performance or life span, or may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining (deep discharging) a battery, or perform controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life.

The term charge controller or charge regulator may refer to either a stand-alone device, or control circuitry integrated within a battery pack, battery-power device, or recharger (Dunlop, 1991; Harrington and Dunlop, 1992) Basically, there are four types of charge controllers. These are namely :-

Series charge controller or series regulator Shunt charge controller or shunt regulator Pulse width modulated charge controller (MPPT) Maximum power point tracker (MPPT)

A series charger controller disables further current flow into batteries when they are full. A shunt charge controller diverts excess electricity to an auxiliary or shunt load as electric heater, when batteries are full (Harrington and Dunlop, 1992).

Pulse width modulated (PWM) and maximum power point tracker technologies adjust charging rate depending on the battery voltage level to allow charging closer to its maximum capacity. Charge controller may also monitor battery temperature to prevent over-heating. Some charge controller systems also display and transmit data to remote displays and data logging to track electric flow over time (Sanjit, 1980; James and Dunlop, 1991; Robert and Isaac, 2007) The primary function of a charge controller in a stand-alone PV system is to maintain the battery at highest possible state of charge while protecting it from over charge by the array of solar panels and from over discharge by the loads, Although some PV system can be effectively designed without the use of a charge control, any system that has unpredictable loads, user intervention, optimized or undersized battery storage (to minimize initial cost) typically requires a battery charge controller (James and Dunlop, 1991). The algorithm or control strategy of a battery charge controller determines the effectiveness of battery charging and PV array utilization, and most importantly the ability of the system to meet the load demands. Additional features such as temperature compensation, alarms, meters, remote voltage sense leads and special algorithm law enhance the ability of a charge controller to maintain the health and extend the lifespan of battery, as well as providing an indication of operational status to the system caretaker (James and Dunlop, 1991; Harrington and Dunlop, 1992).

AIM AND OBJECTIVES The project is aimed at the following:-

Preventing battery overheating to limit the energy supplied to the battery by the PV array when the battery becomes fully charged. Preventing battery undercharge to disconnect the battery from electrical loads when the battery reaches a low state of charge. Providing load control functions to automatically connect and disconnect an electrical load at specified time, for example operating a lighting load from sunset to sunrise. Designing a control algorithm for charge controller to determine which particular algorithm will be suitable and efficient for charge regulation (Stevens, 1999, Robert and Isaac 2007) Knowing how to design, select and match guidelines for battery application and charge control requirements in PV systems.

Project Topics   Project Topics and Materials   

.

Click Here To Get The Complete Project »

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.