A TECHNICAL REPORT ON STUDENTS’ INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)
This report is documentation on personal work experience industrial Training Attachment at the ministry of science and Technology, as part of the 2017/ 2018 students work experience scheme (SIWES) which commenced in August 2018 and lasted till October 2018. The chief objectives of this Training were to provide avenues for students in institutions of higher learning so as to acquire skills and experience in the course of study.
This report explains in details, the aims and objective of SIWES, the brief history of the ministry of science and technology, water and its standards, the challenges encountered, and the practical experience obtained during the training in microbiological analysis which is the determination of the presence of E-coli in water and other pathological microorganisms. It involves culturing of microbes, treatment of water and media. The procedure for microbiological analysis and its chemical significance are also contained in this report. Elemental analysis was done by spectroscopy to determine the concentration of metals (including heavy metals) in a sample of interest. Chloride concentration in water was done by Mohrs Argentometric titration; total suspended solids and total hydrocarbon content were carried out on water samples. Procedures for each of this analysis, and their chemical significance. Basic stages in water treatment, conclusion, and recommendation are also contained in this report.
The Background of the Study:
The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is a skill training programme designed to expose and prepare Nigerian students in tertiary institutions such as Universities Polytechnics colleges of technology, colleges of agriculture, and colleges of education to the realities of the work environment in Nigeria, especially the world in general, in their chosen profession so as to achieve the much need technological advancement for the nation.
The scheme is effective which gives students studying occupational-related courses the experience that will supplement their theoretical learning. As such industrial training is very important in their chosen profession.
The scheme also affords the opportunity of familiarizing and exposing students to the needed experience in handling equipment and machinery that are usually not available in institutions.
The first major role is that it will provide an opportunity for the students to put in practice the theoretical knowledge acquired in the classroom.
Secondly, it exposes students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery in the industrials sector. In addition, it provides students the opportunity to prepare for employment after graduation. This technical report gives a summary of my experience during my three months industrial attachment to Akwa Ibom State Ministry of science and technology.
BRIEF HISTORY OF SIWES:
This student industrial work experience scheme known by the acronym SIWES was established in 1971 by decree 47 of the Federal Government of Nigeria with the aim of practically developing students in tertiary institutions of learning. This was to bring skilled manpower to the Nigerian economy. This was followed by the subsequent establishment of industrial training fund (ITF) in 197A to oversee the affairs of students in their respective department of learning and to monitor the progress of student in any industrial establishment other bodies under SIWES include:
(i) (NUC) National University Commission.
(ii) (NBTE) National Board for technical education.
(iii) (NCCE) National council for college of education.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SIWES
SIWES provides avenue for students to acquire industrial skills and experience in their approved course of study. SIWES prepare student for their industrial work situation which are likely to meet after graduation.
OBJECTIVE OF SIWES
Some specific objectives of SIWES are stated below:
⦁ To bridge the identified gap and practices of engineering and technology in tertiary institution.
⦁ Provides avenue for students in institution of higher to acquire skills and experience in their course.
⦁ Prepare students for post graduation work situation.
⦁ Expose student to work methods and techniques in handling equipments and machinery that may not be available in educational institution.
⦁ It provides opportunity for students to apply their thereby knowledge in real work situation thereby bridging the gap between theory and practical.
⦁ Ease the transition from school to the work of work and enhance student’s contacts for later job.
⦁ Ernest placement and strength employees involvement in the educational process of preparing students for employment in industries.
BRIEF HISTORY OF MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Ministry of science and technology was born out the former Bureau of Science and Technology which was created in July 2000. The Bureau of Science and Technology was created due to the former state Governor, His Excellency Arc. (Obong) Victor Attah’s commitment towords the development of science and technology in the state. The Bureau of science and technology was headed by a special adviser.
In August 2003, the Bureau of Science and Technology was upgraded to a full-fledged ministry, headed by the Honourable Commissioner for science and technology. The ministry has seven (7) Directorates which are; science technology and science promotion, engineering, administration, planning, research and statistics (P.R.S), and ICT.
The ministry of science and technology research and development laboratory was created as part of the ministry in 2013. It was established so that the result of scientific research conducted may be translated into industrial enterprise to produce goods and services that are acceptable and used within and outside the Country, and to make science and technology the ministry of the state’s economy through research and development.
Currently, the laboratory is headed by the Director of science, Mr. Gerald Inoh and managed by Mr. Etim Ekpo. The laboratory is accredited by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Federal Ministry of Environment.
ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCH DEPARTMENT IN MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
The organization of ministry of science and technology is a microministry.
Ministry of science and technology is a government owned institute headed by the honourable commission hence the office ranges as follows:
(i) Office of the Honourable Commissioner
(ii) Office of the Permanent Secretary
(iii) Office of the Directors
Office of the Honourable Commissioner: The Honourable Commissioner takes charge of all political matters of each ministry and reports same to the governor or state executive council.
Office of the Permanent Secretary: The permanent secretary takes charge of administration process of each ministry and is the accounting officer and report same to the commissioner and financial matter.
Office of the Director: There are directorate headed by directors. In the absence of the directors, the directorate is headed by head of directorate and report to the permanent secretary.
(a) Science directorate
(b) Administration and supply
(c) Science and technology promotion
(d) Account and supply.
(e) Engineering and supply
(f) Technology and supply
(g) Planning research statistic (PRS)
(i) It is headed by a director
(ii) Followed by deputy director
(iii) Laboratory manager
(iv) Health safety officer (Safety officer)
(v) The analyst.
(vi) The technology
(ix) Laboratory Superintendent HND holder.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION SERVICE IN THE MINISTRY
(1) Upward communication
(2) Downward communication
(1a) The upward communication handed by senior staff.
(1b) The Downward communication handled by senior staffs.
⦁ The health safety environment (HSE) officer takes charge of all safety programmes, reports back to the management.
⦁ Laboratory manager takes charge of the administration and functions of the laboratory.
⦁ The researchers and the analyst who work on research findings.
⦁ The technologist checks the order of the analysis.
⦁ The laboratory superintendent also work on analysis BSc and HND are called scientific officer.
⦁ The Least qualification in the laboratory is national diploma i.e laboratory attendants.
⦁ ICT students / it students.
ORGANIZATION OF MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Administration finance and supplies
Planning Research & Statistic
Research finding/environment at studies
Health of Laboratory Service and research unit
Laboratory Service Unit
Research and Development Unit
Quality Control/Quality Assurance
Health, safety and Environment (HSE) Unit
NAMES OF INSTRUMENT IN THE LABORATORY:
1. Colony Counter: It is one of the microbiological instruments used to count the number of colonies numbers of micro-organism in water. It is the supplement of microscope; it has a magnifying lens which gathered the ray that makes the eyes to view the number of micro-organisms.
2. Microscope: The instrument is used for viewing objects that cannot be seen with the eyes.
(a.) compound microscope
(b.) Simple microscope
3. Membrane filter/vacuum pump: This instrument is divided for microbial filtration.
4. Water bath: It is used for heating of substance especially liquid with a specific temperature regulation.
5. Incubator: It is used for incubation of culturing media or sample for appropriate regulation. Temperature must be fabourable to sustain them, if the temperature is high, it disrupt them.
6. Hot box or oven:- It is used for heating of substance or sterilization. It works on the principle of heat conversion or dry heat.
7. Autocake: This instrument is used for heating of substance or sterilization of moist heat conversion. It consists of 2 recape values and a meter which reads for every is minutes until it gest to 45 minutes for completion. It carried about 25oo of heat than the hot box.
8. Elite sterilizer: Also perform the same function as that of the automclake.
9. Bod meter: it is used for determination of biochemical oxygen demand of water _______ (BOD) test: It reveals the level of microbes in water. The greater the amount of Bod, the higher the level of microbes.
10. Chemical wind balance: It is used in weighing of chemicals.
11. Spectrophotometer: Its used in determination of ions, that is the entire element. e.g Te, Mn etc. Ikt has region of which contains sample and deionizers water.
12. PH meter: (power of hydrogen): It is used to measures the pH of a substance. It measure the ackalimity and acidity of the solution.
13. Electrical conductivity meter: It measures three parameters.
(c) Total dissolve solid (TDS)
14. Flame analysis: It is used in the determination of all alkaline metals, it has a cylinder that supplies it flames, Bunsen burns, it is also connected to it.
15. Dissolve oxygen meter: This is used in measuring the volume of gas (Oxygen in water).
16. Analytical balance: It is used for weight determination in the laboratory.
17. Colorimeter: Used for measuring intensity absorbent and wavelength of a coloured solution against concentration.
18. Gas chromatographic machine: Used for determination of hydrocarbon.
19. AAS. (Atomic Absorptic) spectrophoto meter: This is used for the detection of heavy metals.
20. Ultra violet spectrophotometer: It is used for determination of absorbance.
21. Hack: Used in determination of nutrients like nitrate, sulphate.
INTRODUCTION TO PERSONAL PROSPECTIVE EQUIPMENT
These are the things used by individuals when workings to reduce/ prevent effect of risk encountered during work. Personal prospective equipment do not stop but reduces risks.
PPE as the name implies is an area not shared amongst individuals but restrictly used individual, taking hygiene into consideration. Some PPE have expery date and as such should be replaced.
EXAMPLE OF PPE
(a) Hand hat
(b) Lab coat/coverall
(c) Ear muffs, ear muffs are used to protect the ear against noise.
(d) Eye – goggles for eye protection.
(e) Noise – mask/ gas mask: It protect individuals from inhaling toxic gases. It contains catriages that traps toxic gases allowing only oxygen to pass through for inhalation..