DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER WITH GENERATOR CONTROL AND TIMING ABILITY


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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER WITH GENERATOR CONTROL AND TIMING ABILITY

ABSTRACTPower failure is a key issue in many developing countries of the world.  To sustain development, the need for an alternative power supply becomes necessary.  Changing between the main supply line and the alternative supply poses yet another problem.  Many attempts have been made to develop automatic power changeover but without due consideration of the fact that there could be times when we need to regulate the behavior of the automatic changeover.  This paper, therefore, presents the design and construction of microcontroller-based programmable automatic power change over.  The paper discusses the design, construction, and operation of a program-controlled power change over a system that allows users to select the mode they would prefer to have their change over operate.  Three modes were achieved, including an auto mode, timed mode, and manual mode, which were selected from push buttons.  LCD interface will be used for the output display.             

TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle page    .....................................................  iDeclaration/Certification....................................................  iiAcknowledgements  ..................................................................................  iiiAbstract.    .............................................................................................  ivTable of content  .........................................................................................  vList of Figures  ..............................................................................

CHAPTER ONE:- INTRODUCTION1.1  The background of study  ......................................................................1.2  The statement of problem .....................................................................1.3  Objective of the Study  ..........................................................................1.4.  Significant of Study   ...........................................................................1.5.  Limitation of Study    ........................................................................1.6  Scope of Study      ......................................................................1.7  Project Layout.    .......................................................................

CHAPTER TWO:- LITERATURE REVIEW2.1  Overview of Switching device............................................................2.2  Review of related literature   ..................................................

CHAPTER THREE:- DESIGN METHODOLOGY3.1  Design and construction   ..................................................3.2  System Description    .......................................................................3.3  Design Process and Construction   ..................................................3.4  Design Description    ..............................................................3.5  Component Specification and Analysis .............................................

CHAPTER FOUR:- RESULTS AND ANALYSIS4.1  System Installation   ..................................................................4.2  Testing   .....................................................................4.3  Performance Analysis  ...................................................................

CHAPTER FIVE:- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1  Conclusion   ..................................................................5.2  Recommendation   ..................................................................Reference  .............................................................APPENDICES   .......................................................List of figuresFigure 3.1  System Block Diagram  ................................................Figure 3.2  Generator Panel  .........................................................................Figure 3.3  Supply Until/Monitor Unit  ..................................................Figure 3.4  Arduino Mega 2560 Microcontroller Board ........................... Figure 3.5  Switching Unit Circuit Diagram ......................................Figure 3.6  Bridge Rectify Circuit  ..........................................................Figure 3.7  Diagram of Regulator Symbol ...................................CHAPTER ONeINTRODUCTION1.1    Background of Study    In most developing and underdeveloped parts of the world like Nigeria, the supply of electricity for industrial, commercial and domestic use is highly unstable. This gives rise to the frequent use of alternative sources of power supply to meet up with the energy demands. The introduction of these alternative sources of supply brings forth the challenge of switching smoothly and on time between the mains supply and the alternative sources whenever there is a failure on the mains source. There is also the need to reduce drudgery from switching between the two sources on the human side. Solving these challenges forms the focus of this work. The Automatic Change-over switch, automatically switches over to the alternative source of power supply (generator) when there is a power outage. It equally switches over to the mains supply when power is restored and turns off the generator automatically. The function of the automatic changeover switch is to monitor the incoming public supply voltage and detect when the voltage drops below a certain level at which electrical appliances can function, depending on the power supply. The principle of automatic change-over switch is that it links the load and mains supply or the alternative supply together.  This enables the use of either the mains supply or an alternative source when there is outage on the mains source.  This can come either in three phase or single phase. This device maintains constant power supply to the load by automatically activating the generator when there is need. Since the user might not always be in need of the generator, provision has been made to prevent the generator from starting should an outage occur. We cannot over- emphasize the importance of power supply to our home and industries, but it is important to mention that the outage of power supply can bring discomfort in our homes and loss of revenue due to down time in the industries.   In view of these considerations, this project is aimed at designing and constructing a workable automatic change over switch with central generator time control using push button switch that is programed in a microcontroller which switches on the load from power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) to a generator when power fails and from generator to PHCN when power comes back.

1.2    Statement of ProblemNowadays securing constant power supply is becoming more important. In Nigeria, power supply for domestic use, commercial and industries is highly unstable. The applications of alternative sources are associated with challenge of switching smoothly and on time between the mains supply and the alternative sources whenever there is power failure on the mains source. The use of an automatic changeover switch with generator control eliminates the stress encountered when switching from mains supply to generator vice versa and reduces down time for increased productivity.On switching of power form mains to alternative source without to utilization in electrical appliances may result in high maintenance cost, reflection of sinosiodal voltage, overheating of electrical components as well as high cost of generator operations. Hence need arises for generator timing timing ability.

1.3    Aim and Objective of sturdyThe aim of this projector is to design and construct a reliable and efficient automatic changeover switch with generator control and timing abilitiesHence, the specific objectives are as follows:1.      To design a workablesingle phase automatic changeover switch with generator control ( which includes it starting/stopping functions and time control)2.      To provide a device that automatically switches over to supply mains once it is restored and simultaneously switches off the generator.3.      To overcome the problem of delay involved in the use of manual changeover 4.     To maintain a constant power supply to load without power failure

1.4    Significance of StudyThe significance of this work cannot be overemphasized. Some benefits that are associated to the change-over switch are;1.      It minimizes damages to lives and equipment since it has its own monitoring system and its switching requires no human contact with the switch, thus eliminating human error.2.      It reduces change-over time to a minimum, due to its quick response to power restoration.3.      It maintains high quality of service through its fast and prompt response.4.      Moreover, the unit is portable, easy, convenient and safe to install.

Scopes and Limitations OF STUDY1.5    Scope of the StudyThe scope of this project is centered on the design and construction of a change-over switch with cut off and starter of a generator with a timing control capacityThe project is designed for power supply applications. It involves automatic changeover between the main power supply and an auxiliary power supply such as a generator. The project implements an automatic switching or starting of the power generator whenever the main power fails.

1.6    Limitations of the StudyThe automatic changeover switch with generator cut off and starter does not function with a faulty generating set.It does not function with generators that have a manual starter.There is limited proximity to enable communication between the panel and the generator..

1.7    Project LayoutThe various stages involved in the development of this project will be properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project will be organized sequentially as follows:Chapter one of this works is on the introduction to changeover switch. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and scope of changeover switch are discussed.Chapter two is on literature review of changeover switch. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work will be reviewed.In chapter three ,the materials and methods used in the design of automatic changeover switch are presented ,along with the design calculations and circuit diagram .Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality will be analyzed.Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC CHANGEOVER WITH GENERATOR CONTROL AND TIMING ABILITY


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