FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC RECORDS

FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC RECORDS

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY      

     Record keeping in an organizational set-up is very important and cannot be overemphasized. This is because continuity depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex organization like that of the university, it is not possible to keep every information in the brain because the volume of information is heavy, therefore records must be kept.           The keeping of records predated the existence of man. For instance, in Genesis l and 2 God kept a chronological record of all his creations of the world from day one when he created the heaven and earth to the seventh day when he rested from all his works which he had made.In Nigeria, Education law demands that every educational institution should keep certain school records such as log book, admission register, visitors book ,inventory book, account book etc The keeping of record is often organized around a life cycle that all records should follow viz-creation, storage, retrieval (for use as needed), retention and disposition which includes protecting all vital documents (records). According to the International Organization for Standardization 2001, record can be defined as information created, received and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person in pursuance of legal obligation or in the transaction of business. Mbiti (1978) sees school records as comprising all the books and files or other document containing information relating to what goes on in that school, who is in the school as well as what type of property the school owns. According to the Fund and Wagnalls Standard Desk Dictionary (2000), record is an account in writing or other permanent form serving as a memorial or authentic evidence of facts or events. It is regarded as information handed down or preserved.Record management is the practice of maintaining the records of an organization from the time they are created up to their eventual disposal; this may include –classifying, storing, securing and destruction (or in some cases, archival preservation) of records. Record management is primarily concerned with the evidence of an organization’s activities and is usually applied according to the value of the records rather than their physical format. In the past, record management was sometimes used to refer to only to the management of records which were no longer in everyday use but still needed to be kept (semi-current or inactive records) often stored in basement of offsite. More modern usage tends to refer to the entire life cycle of records – from the point of creation right through until their disposal.    An academic record or academic transcript is an official statement of all results achieved through study. It includes a complete listing of all the courses, the credit points achieved for courses and the grade point average (G.P.A), if applicable and a complete status, if you have already graduated from your course. Additional information is provided to help understand your academic record.Every student who has ever been enrolled at the university will have details of their achievements recorded in the university database, the official record of these achievements is called an academic record or academic transcript; this record details your entire academic history with the university. Record keeping occupies a strategic position in the efficient and effective management of the university system. Infact, it is central in the administration of institutions of learning because it documents the planning and implementation of appropriate course of services allowing monitoring of work. In the conventional paper based organization such as the universities, paper continues to be viewed as the materials for records in administrative documentations (Igwoku 2008). The approach is for records created in the course of day-to-day business of the universities to be stored and kept in hard copies as evidence of an action, decision or process. However, the process of record keeping provides a framework for keeping, maintaining and providing for the disposition of records and what is contained in them. They are therefore intended to benefit all members of staff by facilitating continuity and evaluation of services and preserving privacy.  This framework is provided for by guidelines designed to educate people on decisions regarding professional record keeping. For instance, American psychological association (APA 2007) contains the “ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct” generally required for the maintenance of appropriate records of psychological services. In Nigeria, just as in America, the nature and extent of the record will vary depending upon the purpose, setting and context of the services. However, whatever the record may be, it is important that the staff get familiar with the legal and ethical requirement for record keeping in their specific professional context and jurisdiction. Generally, record keeping must be guided by some level of confidentiality, proper maintenance security, preservation of the content and context etc (Uwaifo 2004, Akporhonor and Iwhiwhu 2007). Unfortunately, the Nigeria situation in the business of record keeping and management especially in the university system has not been too successful because of lack of management components (Omeyi, 1997). Writing in support of the above finding, Ibiam (2004) noted that many years of neglect had done great damage to the education sector and record keeping is not an exemption. In his view, Iginodala, 1998) believes that personnel (secretaries and filling clerks) who maintain the registry system with filling cabinets containing the paper evidence of university business are inadequate and infact ignorant of their responsibilities.

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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