THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON MORAL DECADENCE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR AMONG THE YOUTH
Social media is often seen as having either a positive or a negative effect to its users while this research dwells on the harmful aspect of social media, but cannot avoid mentioning the benefits too. Today in our society, youths are often found accessing the web in every slight time they ascribe to as being leisure moment which derails their social ethics. Hence, the main focus of this study is to investigate the effect of social media on the morality of youths while using Sololo Ward, Marsabit County as a case study. A descriptive research design of exploratory type will be adopted for the study. A total of 70 respondents were selected from different study level (grades) using the study the population will comprise of all 4 schools in Sololo ward of Marsabit County. The researcher will narrow the study to an accessible numbers. In each school, the stratified random sampling technique was used to select the student’s gender based on the school population. The researcher will choose to use questionnaires and interview schedules in order to collect information. In this research, the instruments used will be validated in terms of content validity. According to (Mugenda, O. M., & Mugenda, A. G., 1999)reliability in which a research instrument yields consistent results or data after repeated trials will be done through test and re- test techniques. Data gathered were analysed using simple frequencies and simple percentages.. It integrates both qualitative and quantitative data through various methods. Collected data is then analyzed for results and recommendations. Through the use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis, it was found that the social media phenomenon is overwhelmingly popular among Kenyan youths as well as one of the major contributors to moral degeneration in the country.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: PRESENTATIONS 10
1.0 INTRODUCTION 10
Background of the study10
1.3.1 General Objectives of the Study 14
1.3.2. Specific Research Objectives 14
Significance of the Study14
Definition of terms18
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 19
Social Learning Theory19
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development20
Sources of moral teaching and its foundation as supposed from stakeholders and moral duty bearers
Impacts or risks associate to social media on youth’s social moral behaviours22
The Review of related literature on youth moral decadence and social behaviours23
2.3.1 Addiction to media and conflict with parents 23
2.3.2. Social media glamorizes drug and alcohol use 24
2.3.3Social Media Influence of Indecent Dressing behavior and Sexual Harassment 24
Sexual promiscuity and miserable relationship25
Social media gives rise to cyber bullying behaviours26
Social encourages Derogatory platform and propagandas27
Rise in abortion and use of contraceptives28
2.3.8 Unconscious of human dignity and loss of natural respect 28
Risky Psychological effects on youth’s engagement on social media29
2.4. 1. Impersonal and lose of self-identity in social media 29
2.4. 2. Social media addiction and anxiety disorder 29
2.4.3. Depression and suicide 30
The Benefits of Social Media31
Recommendations from previous scholars33
2.9 Other recommendations 34
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 37
Sampling Procedure and Technique38
Data Collection Procedures40
Validity and reliability of research Instrument41
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FINDINGS 44
The extent of youth involvement in social media44
Age bracket and level of education of the respondents45
Ways youth learnt how to join social media46
4.2.1 Hours spent on the socio-media by the respondents 47
4.2.2. Impact or negative experience on social media with gender comparison 48
Stakeholder role as moral duty bearers and their mentoring plan for the youth to be just and morally upright citizens49
Response on how stakeholders feel about the moral standards regarding parents and religious sector
4.3.2 Youth mentorship plan by stakeholder for youth good morals 51
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52
Summary of the study52
Major findings of the study52
Conclusion of the study53
5.5. Recommendations from the study 53
5.6 Suggestions for further research 54
Appendix I- an introductory letter 59
Appendix II- research time frame and budget 60
Appendix III- an individual questionnaire 61
Appendix IV- Key informants/stakeholder interview questionnaire 63
Appendix V- Guide on Conducting a Focus Group Discussion or Key Informants 65
Figure 1. (a) Sources of moral teaching 21
Figure 2(a) Risks/impacts associated with social media 22
Figure 3: Number of youth responded (Yes) to social media use with education level-age analysis 46
Figure 4: Ways youth learnt how to join social media 46
Figure 5: linkages of numbers of friends in relation to hours on social media 47
Figure 6: Negative experience on social media with gender comparison 48
Figure 7: Engaged in social media in secret or secluded places 49
Figure 8: level of religious and school institution on improving youth to good moral 50
Figure 9: Stakeholders’ observable negative social behaviour among youths 51
Table 1: feedback on socio-media involvement 45
Table 2: response regarding parents and religious institution role on moral teaching 50
CRE- Christian religious education
KDHS- Kenya Demographic and Health Survey
MOE- Ministry of Education
HIV- Human Immuno Virus
AIDS- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome GLBT- Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender KDHS-Kenya Demographic and Health Survey SPSS-Statistical Package for Social Sciences FOMO- Fear Of Missing Out
CHAPTER ONE: PRESENTATIONS
This chapter covers or outline background of study, problem statement, research objectives and question, study limitation, delimitation, significance of the study, assumptions and definition of terms in more detail manner.
Background of the study
Social media trends
Kenyans have unrestricted access to the social-networking site Facebook, the video-sharing site YouTube, and the blog-hosting site Blogger, all of which rank among the 10 most popular sites in the country. It has been noted in (InterMedia, 2013)that social media metrics tracker SocialBaker, Kenya has 2,018,560 Facebook users, representing 5.04% of the total population, and 19.24% of the online population. The largest age group on Facebook in Kenya is the 18-24 year-old group and there are more male users than female users.
(Onyango, 2012), presenting results from survey of Twitter users in Africa found that Kenyans are the second top users of Twitter in Africa. Kenyans were ranked behind South Africans, but tweeted more than Nigerians, Egyptians and Moroccans despite having a lesser population. The survey found that 60% of those who tweet are aged between 20 and 29 years. The study found that 57% of these tweets are from mobile devices and are driving the growth of social media in Africa.
Moral deterioration is reported in different societies and cultures; (Masath, 2013)an industrialized world to nonindustrial world. Behaviours and actions denoting immorality such as rape, sexual abuse, robbery, and drug abuse, school violence and killings have been common among adults, youth and children all over the world. For instance, recent statistics on rape crime by UNODC indicates that in Africa, and in particular in East Africa, Uganda leads with a total of 1,536 rape cases followed by Kenya having 735 rape cases. Today, we are experiencing behaviours among young people that are utterly shocking: sexual immorality, crime, violence, dishonesty and corruption among others.
The moral decadence in our society has reached such a level that calls for concern (Abba, January 2015). The young ones and leaders of tomorrow do not show respect to the elders. They engage in all sorts of anti-social behaviour injurious to the society. Any society that is not morally sound is bound to witness all sorts of social menace. Moral values are found in our religion, culture and traditions yet our youth, for one reason or the other are not that religious.
They consider our indigenous culture outdated and our traditions barbaric. Therefore they queue up to embrace digital-culture in its totality; abandoning our indigenous culture and tradition entirely, thereby losing their identity.
Now that the issue has reached an alarming rate and as it is the tradition in our dear country whenever an issue arises, we point accusing fingers and play the blame game instead of brainstorming on how best to tackle the problem. And that is why this study was chosen to shade limelight on influence of social media on moral decadence. According to blogger (Johnston, 2013), the connection between media and morality is almost taken for granted: Plato, for example, banished all storytellers from his imagined Republic except those whose tales were “in
accordance with the patterns we laid down when we first undertook the education of our soldiers” because listeners or viewers would, he thought, admire and imitate characters’ bad behaviour. Later thinkers have, for the most part, agreed with Plato, as the moral panics that have greeted new media over the centuries, from novels to comic books to video games, can attest; as well as ongoing concern about the possible negative moral effects of media, there’s also a long tradition of works created specifically to teach the morals we consider to be desirable. But while there’s been a lot of research done on how media exposure affects specific behaviours, relatively little has focused on how it influences our judgment of right and wrong.
Morality for me has more to do with how one relate with other people and to find the right and wrong in how one deals with others and to act rightly of course. The study will investigate on youth moral deterioration in Sololo ward of Marsabit County, Kenya. Specifically, it aimed at finding the gaps of “stakeholders” attribute to youth moral, deterioration; and explore the necessary approaches to restore morality.
There has been a marked increase of high school riots, youth always addicted to phones and unwelcomed sexual advances among youths on street and around homes. The recent news of high school student arrested at Nairobi super highway attest to this immoral behaviours on rise. They could be more unreported cyber-crimes happening around youth life. In this regard the researcher will make study and find the main causes of these immoral behaviours among youth and also find among the “stakeholders” effort in restoring moral standards
(Oladipo, 2009), argued that parents are the first moral teachers and role models that young people had. Effective parenting characterized with love, care, attachment and trust between parents and children is more likely to lead to children and youths’ good moral behaviour.
Nevertheless, ineffective parenting leads to children’s and youths’ bad behavior. The researcher will therefore focus parent as one of the stakeholder to promote good morals thus also administered questionnaire to them
In their finding (Bonachristus, Umeogu & Ifeoma, Ojiakor, 2014) that the internet has a double edge sword characteristic in that it can be used for both good and bad. For one and on the good side, it has made education very easy and more accessible. One can be in his/her house and get a degree or socializing. How can one reconcile the two? By spending more time on the socialization networks instead of academic sites, the time meant for studying have been directed towards socializing and it negatively affects youth’s behaviours
According to (Shu-Sha A. G. and Kaver S., 2009), “internet addiction is the use of the Internet to escape from negative feelings, continued use of the Internet despite the desire to stop, experience of unpleasant emotions when Internet use is impossible, thinking about the Internet constantly, and the experience of any other conflicts or self-conflicts due to Internet use”. It is addiction that can cause students to chat while classes are ongoing and even in the church. It is addiction that will cause users to give up sleep all in the name of chatting at the expense of their programmes lined up for the next day
A recent news in Daily Nation newspaper in Kenya is not a welcome too, (Langat, 2015) stated that a group of 550 students, most of them minors, have been arrested in basement in Eldoret where they are suspected to have gone on hedonistic rampage of drugs and possibly sex.
Shocked parents said their children lied that they were going for choir practice, shopping or other innocent errands. Most probably they learn these things from glamour of social media.
1.3.1 General Objectives of the Study
To investigate and find on influence of social media on moral decadence and social behaviour among the youth in Sololo ward, Marsabit
Specific Research Objectives
I. To find out the extent of youth involvement in social media
II. To study the impact of social media on their moral behaviour
III. To determine the risks that comes with use of social media on the Sololo ward youth.
IV. To be able engage stakeholder who are moral duty bearers and find ways of mentoring the youth to be just and morally upright citizens
1. What is the extent of youth involvement with social media?
2. What are the impacts of social media on their moral behavior?
3. What determines the risks that comes with use of social media on the Sololo ward youth?
4. How to engage stakeholder who are moral duty bearers and find ways of mentoring the youth to be just and morally upright citizens?
Significance of the Study
Studies indicate that moral values and behaviours are relevant to individuals, society and the nation at large. (Santrock, 2005), explains that children and youth are supposed to grow morally
good for their own social and life development. Societies and nations with morally children and youths are more likely to prosper than societies characterized with immorality. Despite the negative effects caused by the gangs in the society and the nation at large, little is known or reported in different parts of the country including Sololo, how social media lure youth into crime. This is what prompted the researcher to investigate the causes for moral deterioration among youths in Sololo ward. This research will finally answer the questions on what are negative influence of social media on moral decadence and the main purpose of this research is acquiring knowledge from the field that is not yet fully explored
The study looks at influence of social media on moral decadence and social behaviour among the youth, its findings will be relevant because it will inform parents, teachers, students and all the relevant stake holders on the impact of social media on the moral decadence among teenagers. (Carroll, J.A. & Kirkpatrick, R.L., 2011) The result of this study thus make the youths who in this study are being referred to as teenagers, to be aware of how social media influence their morality negatively. It will also help those working with youths by suggesting some ways in order for them to relate with youth‘s social activities especially with regards of using social media sites. In line with this, those working with youths will know a way how to help them if they encountering problems arising trough social media interaction with others. The parents too will be made knowledgeable on their children‘s purpose of using social media sites and be aware how it affect their children’s moral behaviour. With enough knowledge, parents can think of possible preventive ways if their child is prone to develop a weak interpersonal relationship with other people because of too much addition and dependence of social media sites (Whiteman, 2015). Finally this study will be spring board for other researcher to take on further or use as
reference. It is in view of the above; the researcher seeks to investigate the factor contributing to the moral decadence among the youth hence will seek a valuable solution to restore good moral
A big part of our morality has to do with the world around us. The whole, "nature versus nurture" comes into effect here. Whether or not the nurture of our parents can outdo our surroundings and vice versa (Bandura, 1977). A big contributor to the moral decline, in my opinion, would have to be the almost unlimited access teenagers today have with the media. Music videos, music lyrics, the internet, and magazines all influence how we behave and react. What is portrayed in the media is not and will not be moral. Anyone following the sources, for example a magazine with unnaturally skinny models in them, would see that model as "ideal", leading to a false impression of beauty and life (Nesi, J., & Prinstein, M. J. , 2015). Although parents play a big part in every child's life, so does the environment in which the child grows up in. Media contributes to moral degradation because it presents uncensored messages and images to the public arena. This is because most of these media broadcast violence, crime and obscenity
This study provides limelight on how stakeholder like parents and religious leaders were participating in moral teaching and restoration thus create understanding youths issues which may hopefully develop positive atmosphere towards teenage youth and enhance interact between stakeholder and youths to amicably share and solve their issues without show of resistance or rebellion by them. It also promotes social-cultural promotion and conserves traditional way of relating to youth in modern context. Now that the research highlight the importance and possibilities improving parent-teenage relationships, it gives room for a better change.
Through the study finding it is hoped that it will offer insight to many of the beneficiaries. First, it will improve parents and teachers to know the influence of social media on both moral and
social life of youth. It also emphases the dangers of social media thus raise alarm on curbing this problem and finally find intervention measures to address this emerging youth issues
The study is limited by time and financial resources and as result the research had to source for more financial resources and use alternative means. Since few similar studies have been done especially in institutions of higher learning, there is limited empirical literature on the area of influence of social media on moral decadence and social behaviour among the youth in the context of Kenya. Another expected limitation is that the youth might fail to give correct information on the basis of invasion of their privacy. The researcher explained to them that the study was purely for academic purposes and not motivated by any other interests whatsoever.
The study was delimited to only existing schools within Sololo ward and targeted 70 sample against a population 440 youth sample size. The study was also delimited to questioning and interviewing boys and girls who have access to internet both at home and elsewhere.
The researcher was basically proceeding with assumption that the respondents will be located and that they agree to co-operate and give truthful and sincere answers to the items listed in the questionnaires.
Definition of terms
Youth-The Kenyan policy defined in (Ministry of Home Affairs, Heritage and Sports, 2002) state youth as one aged between 15 - 30 years having considered physical, psychological, cultural, social, biological and political aspects, which explain the Kenyan youth situation.
Social media- as refer in (Chris, 2015,) social media as a social network of interactive communication that exist between people using a specialized electronic platforms for interaction such as Facebook ,WhatsApp, Twitter, My space, LinkedIn and Instagram.
Stakeholders- the partners and actors that are engaged/ interact with youth in their life like religious leaders, institution leader etc.
Bodaboda- term originated from western Kenya referring to motorbike for hire, commonly known to all Kenyans
Media- this is means and institution for publishing and broadcasting information
Morality- recognition of distinction between good and evil or between right and wrong; respect for and obedience to rules of right conduct; the mental disposition or characteristic of behaving in a manner intended to produce good moral. More so, it is a setoff social rules, customs, traditions, beliefs, or practices which specify proper, acceptable forms of conduct.It has its etymological origin from the Latin word “mores” which means “conduct or custom”. (Ezekwu, 2008), has therefore noted that “morality is used to denote a generally accepted code of conduct in a society that is essential to its survival and welfare”. These accepted norms or codes of conduct in any society often appeal to the moral nature of man (Omoregbe, 1993), they appeal to the sense of humanity and relevant for the welfare of the entire members of any society including Sololo.