THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS


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THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NKANU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE  

ABSTRACT:                             

The topic of the research was Influence of School Environment on the Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary School in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. The purpose was to find out  influence of the school environment on the academic performance pupils in public primary school pupils in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State. the target population of the study will comprise the teachers, students and on-teaching staff. The target population was 3,000 respondents. The researcher used simple random sampling method to select the total of (500) respondents from the above school, which comprises the academic staff, non-academic staff and students. The researcher selected (100) one hundred respondents from each school, making a total of 500 respondents from the five schools selected. The researcher used questionnaire to collect data from the respondents. The researcher used simple percentage to analyze the data collected. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The findings included the following: that the school environment has power to influence the quality of academic performance of the pupils, secondly, that good school environment gives opportunity to pupils to learn effectively. The researcher recommended that owners of schools should make their school environment conducive to enhance proper teaching and learning. secondly, owners of schools should spend adequate money on the development of school environment like library to attract attention to the pupils.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents:    Pages:

Title Page i

Certification Page ii

Approval Page iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgements v

Tables of content vi

Abstract vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study 1

Statement of the Problem 3

Purpose of the Study 4

Significance of the Study 5

Scope of the Study 6

Research Questions 6

CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Concepts and Meanings of Environment 7

Meaning of Environment 7

Concept of Environment 8

Concepts of Public Primary School 10

School Buildings 13

Historical School Development of Public   14

Education in Nigeria 14

Nigeria Primary School Enrolment by State in 2013 14

School Locations 17

School Facilities 18

Empirical Studies 19

Summary of Literature Review 21

Skinner – Environmental Theory 22

BF Skinner: Environmental Theory 22

Reinforcement (Strengthens Behavior) 24

Punishment (Weakens Behavior) 26

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design 27

Area of the Study 27

Population of the Study 27

Sample and Sampling Technique 28

Instrumentation 28

Validation of the Instrument 28

Reliability of the Instrument 29

Method of Data Collection 29

Method of Data Analysis 29

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

Analysis of Research Questions 30

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSIONS

Discussions of the Results 33

Conclusion 34

Educational Implications 35

Recommendations 35

Suggestions for Further Studies 36

Limitations of the Study 36

Summary of the Study 36

APPENDIX 38

QUESTIONNAIRE 39

REFERENCES 41

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.

Research findings have proven that there are many factors that affect the teaching and learning process of the child. These findings have created a lot of doubt among scholars as weather the school environment can influence the learning process of the child. To understand this finding, it is important to define what school environment means.

Orji (2016) defined school environment as all the human and non-human materials that help in the teaching and learning process, e.g. the human resources, the instructional materials, the school facilities, etc. contribute seriously in the teaching and learning process of the child. the quality of human resources a school has can affect positively or negatively in the teaching and learning process of the child. the quality of the school facilities available contribute to the quality of the teaching and learning of the school system. The content of instructions given by the teachers can improve the academic development of the child.

In the primary school, which is the foundation of the child’s educational development has some challenges, which involves the influence of the school environment on the pupils. 

According to Bosah (2017), the primary school system of education is confronted with some problems relating to the influence of school environment on the academic development of pupils. He stated clearly that school environment plays major role on the academic development of the child.

The foundation of education, which is the primary school in Nkanu East has been confronted with series of school environmental challenges that has affected the smooth-running of the programme.

In the course of this research, we will access the extent at which the school environment as influenced the academic development of the pupils, the extent of the school environment and the aspect in which the school environment has influenced the academic development of the pupils. What are the effects of poor school environment poor school environment on the academic development of pupils and ways to improve school environment, etc. The above research questions will guide the researcher to do justice to the influence of school environment on the academic development of the child in Nkanu East Local Government Area.

Statement of the Problem

A child’s school environment involves all the school plant or facilities that aid the child to learn comfortably. But the story is different in Nkanu East Local Government Area where some of the school plant or facilities are rarely available. These facilities include school buildings, furniture, chalkboard, electricity, office equipment, staff offices, computer centres, canteen, fields and other sporting facilities. The above mentioned items are lacking in some of the school in their Local Government Area. The students sometimes study under the leaking roof, some study outside the classrooms, some classrooms carry more capacity than they should. For any effective learning and study to take lace, the instructional materials or teaching aids must be made available. Some schools do not have good security network for the safety of the students and the school’s property. The absence of the above facilities like school laboratory has hampered teaching and learning. Students don’t have access to good books, practicals are not carried out, students struggle with the rain and sunshine in the course of their studies. These acts have disturbed the learning and studying processes of the school. The computer system and other technological devices that are used in the schools. This has affected the students’ score in both internal and external examinations.

Therefore, the school plant are fundamental materials that must be put aright of effective teaching and learning.

It is against this backdrop that the researcher wants to examine how the school environment influence the academic performance in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose is to investigate the influence of the school environment on the academic performance of the primary school pupils in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Specifically, the researcher will examine:

1. The extent the quality of physical school environment with regards to school buildings affect the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Nkanu East Local Government Area.

2. Determine the extent the library services affect the academic performance of pupils.

3. Find out the extent school location affect the academic performance.

4. Proffer solution on how the school environment be improved to influence pupils’ academic development.

Significance of the Study

The study is very necessary in various ways; it will help the primary school child in his life? The study will help parents and the government to know that their roles and responsibilities are needed to enhance the primary school child’s development.

It is an opportunity for parents to minimize the size of their families as to be able to provide necessary facilities to their children and also inculcate in them the desire of quality children.

In addition, parents from low-economic background will put efforts to increase their earning as to take good care of their children and provide their physical and mental needs. The researcher believes that after going through this work, the government will know their responsibility in provision competent health care centre, adequate care of primary education facilities and good employment opportunities for the parents to enhance their children's development. Therefore, government is expected to make education free and compulsory in the country.

The behavior of a young child, whether physical, emotional or social mainly depends on maturation, the role of parents is largely let children grow by themselves, since development and change come from within rather than from without under these circumstances, whatever adults do, the children are taught of primary significance.

Scope of the Study

The study covered only the impact of the environment on the academic development of the pupils in primary schools, with special reference to Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Research Questions

In a bid to undertake this research work, the researcher considered these questions very necessary based on the purpose of the study:

1. The extent the quality of physical school environment with regards to school buildings affect the academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Nkanu East Local Government Area.

2. Determine the extent the library services affect the academic performance of pupils.

3. Find out the extent school location affect the academic performance.

4. Proffer solution on how the school environment be improved to influence pupils’ academic development.

.

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