CHAPTER 1: Introduction

Information Communication Technology according to Unagha(2006) encompasses computer and telecommunication. It is concerned with the technology used in handling, acquiring, processing, storing and dissemination of information. Similarly, Oxford Advanced Learners‘Dictionary sees ICT as electronic media used in processing, analyzing, storing and sending out information. Evey et al (2010) observed that ICT is innovative device that can carry out such functions as receiving, storing, computing, analyzing, transmitting and retrieving information presented to them and allowing for one-to-one or copyrightgroup communication among humans. Obashoro (2007) identified ICT infrastructure to include multi-media CD-ROMs, MP3 players, websites, discussion boards, emails, computer-aided assessments, learning management software, blogs, etc. In the same vein, Folorunso, Longe and Ijere (2003) identified ICT infrastructure to include internet, World Wide Web (www), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Protocols, Content Management and Meta Data Standard (MDS).

1.1 Background of the Study

Improving the quality of education is a priority for most developing countries. Policymakersusually agree that such improvements could lead to structural shifts in productivity and boostlong-term economic growth. Governments face the challenge of identifying efficient ways to usetheir scarce resources and raise the quality of education.The provision of information and communications technology (ICT) to schools and itsuse for educational purposes can increase student achievement in at least two ways. First, theavailability of ICT in the classroom shifts the level of educational inputs and could thus affectstudents’ learning outcomes. Second, exposure to ICT may increase the cognitive abilities ofstudents, allowing them to learn faster. Computer-aided instruction may be more relevant in acontext in which teacher quality is poor, which is the case in most developing countries.Previous studies have shown that programs that provide computer-aided mathematicsinstruction can positively influence students’ test scores for example, Barrow et al. (2009)found that an instructional computer program for pre-algebra and algebra in the United Stateshad a positive effect on test scores (about 0.17 of a standard deviation). Similarly, Banerjee et al.(2005) found that computer-assisted mathematics instruction raised mathematics scores offourth-grade students in Vadodara, India (at least in the short run). Other studies have foundlittleor no effect. Using credible identification strategies, Leuven et al. (2007), Goolsbee and Guryan(2006), Angrist and Lavy (2002), and Rouse and Krueger (2004) found no evidence that the useof computers and software had a positive impact on student achievement. Additional research isneeded to understand the circumstances under which the provision of ICT can have a positiveimpact on student learning outcomes.The research therefore seek to provide an appraisal of ict and academic performance of private primary school pupils

1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to a United Nations report (1999) ICTs cover Internet service provision, telecommunications equipment and services, information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centres, commercial information providers, network-based information services,

and other related information and communication activities. According to UNESCO (2002) information and communication technology (ICT) may be regarded as the combination of ‘Informatics technology’ with other related technology, specifically communication technology. The various kinds of ICT products available and having relevance to education, such as teleconferencing, email, audio conferencing, television lessons, radio broadcasts, interactive radio counseling, interactive voice response system, audiocassettes and CD ROMs etc have been used in education for different purposes (Sharma, 2003; Sanyal, 2001; Bhattacharya and Sharma, 2007).. 

The field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning, and research (Yusuf, 2005). A great deal of research has proven the benefits to the quality of education (Al-Ansari, 2006). ICTs have the potential to innovate, accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow's workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change (Davis and Tearle, 1999; Lemke and Coughlin, 1998; cited by Yusuf, 2005)

There are many forces and factors that pose as challenges and problems to Inhibit effective diffusion of ICTs in private primary schools (Tella, 2007) identified difficulty in motivating faculty, inadequate equipment,  lack of ICT policy, poor attitude of staff, inadequate computers, and problem of connectivity to off-campus students. Some inhibitors identified for investigation at Uniport by Okorie, Agabi and Uche (2005, p. 33) included lack of computer or ICT centre, inadequate facilities/equipment at the ICT centre, irregular power supply, Information Communication Technologies in the management of Education, absence of alternative source of power supply, lack of computer knowledge, expensive nature of ICT facilities, and lack of willpower by management to embrace ICT-revolution.Consequentlythe problem confronting this research is to investigate Ict and academic performance of primary school pupils.

1.3 Objective of the Study

To provide an appraisal of Ict and academic performance of primary school pupils.

1.4 Research Questions

1 What is the nature of ICT?

2 What is the impact of ICT on academic performance of primary school pupil.

1.5 Significance of the Study

To provide an assessment of the impact of ICT on the academic performance of primary school pupil.

1.6 Statement of Hypothesis

Ho ICT has no significant impact on academic performance of primary school pupil.

Hi ICT has significant impact on the academic performance of primary school pupil.

1.7 Scope  of the Study

The research focuses on the appraisal of ICT and academic performance of primary school pupil.

1.8 Definition of Terms


MIS implies both the technique, the process, as well asthe structure concerned with systemic, accurate and speedy organization andcontrol of relevant signals, data or messages from the different parts andenvironment of an activity unit, through appropriate collection, editing,analysis, display, storage and retrieval of signals or messages in manners thatwould be useful for management decision-making


 According to a United Nations report (1999) ICTs cover Internet service provision, telecommunications equipment and services, information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, libraries and documentation centres, commercial information providers, network-based information services,

Academic Performance

All students are required to maintain a satisfactory academic record and meet the obligations of the courses in which they are enrolled. Failure to do so will be dealt with as the Faculty and its designated Boards shall determine. In all cases, midyear grades in full year courses will be considered along with all other grades in the calculations for minimum requirements and satisfactory records. 

Minimum Requirements 

To meet the minimum academic requirements in any term, a student may have at most one failing grade, which may not be accompanied by another unsatisfactory grade; and at least two satisfactory grades, one of which must be a letter grade in an FAS course taken for degree credit (or in a course taken by cross-registration and counted toward concentration or UTEP requirements). A student who fails to meet the minimum requirements ordinarily will be required to withdraw for two terms, whether or not his or her previous record was unsatisfactory. 

Satisfactory and Unsatisfactory Academic Records 

The requirements for a satisfactory academic record are satisfactory grades in all courses, and at least one letter grade in an FAS course taken for degree credit (or in a course taken by cross-registration and counted toward concentration or UTEP requirements). However for freshmen in their first term, an academic record will be considered satisfactory if all grades are passing, at most one grade is unsatisfactory, and at least one grade is a satisfactory letter grade. A student whose record is unsatisfactory is ordinarily placed on probation. A student with two consecutive unsatisfactory records ordinarily will be required to withdraw for two terms. 

Exclusion from a Course 

A student who neglects any course may, after written warning by the instructor, be excluded from the course by the instructor with the approval of the Administrative Board. The warning should specify the steps the student must take in order to be allowed to continue in the course. Exclusion from a course is equivalent in all respects to failing it and in and of itself makes the student’s record for the term unsatisfactory. A notation of EXLD (excluded) on the transcript indicates that the student was not permitted to continue in the course and received no credit. A student may not withdraw from a course from which he or she has been excluded. Students excluded from a course are denied any right to further course evaluation, including final and makeup examinations. 

Submission of Written Work 

Students are responsible for ensuring that required written course work is submitted and received on time. Written work should not be left in open mailboxes or other unattended places but rather given personally and directly to the head of the course or to a responsible person acting on his or her behalf. Papers that are mailed to instructors should be sent by certified mail, and a receipt of delivery should be requested from the Postal Service. The student should keep both the postal receipt and a copy of the paper. If work is submitted electronically, students are responsible for confirming receipt. 




Researchwap.com is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.com guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.