THE PROBLEM OF PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION IN A BEVERAGE INDUSTRY (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY OWERRI)
This research work is carried out to determine the problems of physical distribution management in a beverage industry. A case study of Nigeria bottling company Owerri.
To achieve this, it is necessary to find out the physical distribution problem in a beverage industry. The study is aimed at.
1. To determine the factors that affect physical distribution in a beverage industries.
2. To determine the activities inherent in physical distribution, its barriers and to identify the factors.
3. To recommend ways and means of improving the physical distribution system.
The data for the study was collected through the use of questionnaire and interviews which was conducted at the premises of the industry. The were analyzed, giving solution to such as suing the right distribution channels and ensuring that product are distributed to where they are highly needed for effective physical distribution.
This work is written in chapters. Chapter one is the introductory part of the work, chapter two takes about the literature review chapter three is the research methodology, then chapter four review the data presentation of the work done and the chapter five is the summary, conclusion and the recommendation of the work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Physical distribution management
2.2 The total physical distribution concept
2.3 Activities involved in physical distribution
2.4 Channels of distribution
2.5 Factors affecting choice of distribution channel
2.6 Conflict and resolution in channel o distribution
2.7 Importance of physical distribution management
2.8 Physical distribution cost
CHAPTER THREE: INTRODUCTION
3.1 Research design
3.2 Questionnaire design
3.3 population sample selection
3.4 Sources of data
3.5 primary sources and secondary source
3.6 Data collection techniques
3.7 the survey
3.9 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDING
4.1 Data presentation
4.2 Analysis of findings
4.3 Testing of hypothesis
4.4 Decision rule
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.5 Questionnaire Chapter One
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According the Kotler (1986:80 distribution channel involves planning, implementing and controlling the physical flow of materials and final goods from point of orign to point of use to meet the needs of customers as a profit.
He went further to say that the major physical distribution cost is transportation, followed by inventory carrying cost, warehousing and or reprocessing, physical distribution management should be broadened to include the distribution cost could be more effectively managed.
There should be an service to get to the final consumer at the right time.
This is because the consumer is the distribution of all production process. The distributors have to date into account the changing panthern of the market and the activity of the competitors. And also the goal which the industry sets to achieve and also determining the product need of consumers before embraking on physical distribution management.
The use of distribution in conveying products to the consumer are an behalf of manufacturers in dealing with their customers. These distributors are also known as the middlemen or wholesales who act as a link between the manufacturers and consumers. One of the problems facing most firms is the physical distribution of product. Because of this reason, a lot of research has been done and most of these researchers tried to find out solution to these problems. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Because of the competitive nature of every industry, many companies who are unable to cope with the competition have collapsed and foiled.
Distribution is an important aspect of marketing, many industries loose their share as a result of poor distribution management most consumers blame them for high priel because the distribution add cost to the product, buy, clain that there would be no effectiveness and efficiency in distribution of product without the introduction of distributions.
No much has been written or done to know the extent of the influence of distribution in marketing and thereby coming out with possible and workable solution there is therefore, the heed for the researcher to evaluate the distribution channel in marketing of coco cola product in Imo State using Nigeria Bottling company Owerri as a case study. The researcher channels are unnecessary and if some channels or addition should be made. 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The specific objective of this study are as follows.
1. To critically examine the distribution channels of Nigeria Bottling Company Owerri.
2. To determine and examine the various channels used in distributing soft drinks in Imo State.
3. To determine the problems encountered in the distribution channel and also to identify the factors that could be responsible for such situation.
4. TO examine the impact of distribution cost to print.
5. To fund and recommend possible solution to the problems associated with the distribution.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Distribution is not static but change with the changing market but change study is very significant because it exposes the effect of improper choice of distribution channel in the manufacturing industry ike Nigeria Bottling company Owerri.
The total physical distribution concept will assist industries to identify areas where changes have to take place for progress to be made.
This study also aimed at informing the management of the implication of inefficient communication system and exposes the benefits of consumers on the new techniques for the physical distribution channel in a manufacturing industry.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research questions are stated as follows
1. Are there effective distribution of soft drink products to customer and consumers.
2. Does your company have an effective transportation system.
3. Does the use of advertising increase the distribution system in your company.
4. Does the conflict between retailer and distributors have effect on your distribution channel.
5. How has physical distribution channel increase your production system.
The following research hypothesis will be tested.
Ho: There is effective distribution of soft drink product to customers and consumers.
Hi: There is no effective distribution of soft drink product to customer and consumers.
Ho: transportation cost is a limiting factor in the distribution of soft drink.
Hi: Transportation cost is not limiting factor in the distribution of soft drink.
Ho: Conflict between retailer and distributor have effect on distribution channel.
Hi: Conflict between retailer and distributors have no effect on distribution channel.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to the physical distribution management in a manufacturing industry in Owerri with reference to Nigeria Bottling company Owerri plant. The analysis made in this research. Is based on data made available to the researcher by the company\’s staffs through questionnaires and responses. The sample size is the selected area. The sample size is the selected area of study and it involves observation, questionnaire and interview.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In actual sense, this study should have involved the study of the some of the manufacturing industries, but because of the geographical distribution of these industries, it is not practicable for the researcher to carryout research work on these industries. In view of this, the researcher has decided, after careful study of all the various types of industries to concentrate on the Nigeria Bottling company Owerri .
In addition, there was the problem of time and financial, the time allocated for the completion of this research is very limited as such, the industries in the state.
There was also the problem of compromising attitude of the stated of Nigeria Bottling company especially those at the soft they always very suspicious of the researchers mission.
However, being these constraint, the researcher has made efforts to ensure that she lift no stone unturned in the research for materials and evidence necessary for the purpose of carrying out this research successfully.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The term physical distribution has varied meanings and terms associated with it as understated.
1. Physical: It loauid be partaning to body t is the nature of things.
2. Distribution: It is the act of dividing and sharing out things to different places or at different points.
3. Physical distribution: This is a task of ensuring that the goods and services produced by the organization are transported from te place of production to the point of consumption, as efficiently and as economically as possible.
4. Management:- It is the control of operating a business tactfully.
5. Product: It is the physical entity and services which satieties aerating customers need.
6. Channel: It is the passage for the medium of communication.
7. communication: It is the act of including others to interpret an idea in a manner intended by the speaker.
8. Industry: manufacturing or combination of firms that products similar goods.
9. Wholesalers intermediaries that perform a variety of marketing functions to more foods and services through the channel to retainlers and organizational customers.
10. transportation: The provision and adequate manufacturing of the right quality and quantity of vehecles for the evaluation of finished goods.
11. Consumption: It is the sole end purpose of all production.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In the last chapter, the researcher summarized every chapter of this work, drew up conclusion and gave recommendations.
In chapter one, which is the fist chapter, the researcher analysis the background of study, statement of the problems, the objective of study, which includes examining the distribution channel use by the company and to find and recommend possible solution to the problems associated with the distribution. Then the significance of the study which exposes the effect of improper choice of distribution channel. She further analyze five research question, the limitation, the scope, research hypothesis and finally the definition of terms.
In chapter two, which is the literature review, the researcher looked into the physical distribution management, the total physical distribution concept, Activities involved in physical distribution which include \”transport inventory, warehousing, industrial packaging, material handing, other processing and information management and data processing. She analysis the channel of distribution which include or involve \”direct sales to ultimate consumer, selling through whole seller and direct sales to retail outlets the researcher also talks about the factors affecting choice of distribution channel, conflicts and resolution in channel of distribution, importance of physical distribution management, physical distribution cost and customer service in physical distribution.
The chapter three of this work talks about the research design and methodology, where sources of data emanate from the primary data and secondary data, then the population size which ranges from 100-150 staff, where 44 questionnaire were issued out as sample size of data which 40 questionnaire were returned. The method oral interview, company\’s magazine, journals and so on, finally the method of data analysis which is by percentage method as well as chi- square method.
Chapter four is the data presentation and analysis. The data collected from the respondents of Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri were presented and the data collected from the 40 questionnaire during the research were analyzed. Three hypothesis were tested with chi-square table and chi-sqaure calculation with decision rule taken.
In chapter five, which is the final chapter, the researcher summarizes the chapters, draw up conclusion and give recommendation. In this chapter, the summarization of this work is done chapter by chapter, then the conclusion and recommendation stated which is the, increasing the fleet size of the company\’s vehicles, the maintenance workshop shouted be more equipped, setting up deports in a growing or developing downs and so on. 5.2 CONCLUSION
For goods produced by industries to reach the consumers, companies must maintain an efficient distribution system. Sales and revenue expectations of a manufacturing company are to a large extent sales or does not, depends on if the consumers get the product. Very often, cost of distribution has tended to be greater than cost of production.
The literature review section of this work was selected to give back ground. View of what specialist in the field of physical distribution had regarded on the subject matter earlier.
Analysis on the topic, dealt in great details with the methods of physical distribution operation in the Nigerian Bottling Company Owerri. This analysis is facilitated by the questionnaire distributed and interview conducted as fact finding devices.
Discussions were carried out on finding and they were aimed at highlighting the problems with a view to suggesting possible solutions. The researcher rounded up the work by a recommendation of ways and means of solving the problems as to enable the Nigeria Bottling Company accomplish their objectives.5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the problems found during the course of this research, the researcher has given these recommendations in order to limit the problems. Distribution arrangement and better customer service and coverage the fleet size of the company\’s distribution vehicles should be increased from its present number and ageing one\’s replace.
2. To cope with this challenge as many be created if (No i) above comes true, the maintenance workshop should be more equipped with more equipment hat can handle more sophisticated mechanical technicians employed to strengthen the present work force of the department.
3. The depot locations are found mostly in cities, but efforts should be made to extend the depots to the other growing or developing towns because the dealer in those areas charge much.
4. inadequate supply and shortage of raw materials, the solution to this has to be a long term one and this lies in increasing the production of local raw materials as much as possible. The company should therefore identify its efforts on its terms in bended state, to see that the project is a success and that most of the fruit juices needed for production process, could be obtained from there.
5. Material handling equipment like forklift hand trolleys, should be increased both at plant and depots levels to facilitate.
i. The loading and off loading of vehicles, thus reducing the turn- round time for vehicle on delivery to deports.
ii. Saving time of dealers on self- collection service basic and
iii. Driver, salesmen who need to be loaded before they can make their drivel delivers to customers.
6. order processing: The system of making the customers route card that is indicating the days to expect supplies.
(order) from salesmen on direct supply delivery is highly recommended and should be continued and possibly computerized so that.
i. little time is spent in filling customers wetly orders and
ii. In the case of complaints from customers, the card can be retrieved with little or no time cost.
Chapter One of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry . Order and download complete “Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry ” project work if you need chapter one to chapter five of this work. Chapter One of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry contains: Introduction, Background Of The Study, Statement Of The Problem, Objective Of The Study, Significance Of The Study, Research Questions, Hypothesis, Scope Of The Study, Limitation Of The Study And Definition Of Terms
Chapter Two of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry is available. Order and download complete “Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry ” project work if you need chapter two of this work. Chapter Two of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry contains: Literature Review, Physical Distribution Management, The Total Physical Distribution Concept, Activities Involved In Physical Distribution, Channels Of Distribution, Factors Affecting Choice Of Distribution Channel, Conflict And Resolution In Channel O Distribution, Importance Of Physical Distribution Management And Physical Distribution Cost
Chapter Three of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry is available. Order and download complete “Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry ” project work if you need chapter three of this work. Chapter Three of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry contains: Introduction, Research Design, Questionnaire Design, Population Sample Selection, Sources Of Data, Primary Sources And Secondary Source, Data Collection Techniques, The Survey, Observation And Method Of Data Analysis
Chapter Four of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry is available. Order and download complete “Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry ” project work if you need chapter four of this work. Chapter Four of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry contains: Data Presentation And Analysis Of Finding, Analysis Of Findings, Testing Of Hypothesis And Decision Rule
Chapter Five of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry is also included in the full work. Order and download complete “Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry ” project work including chapter five. Chapter Five of Problem Of Physical Distribution In A Beverage Industry contains: Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation, Bibliography, Appendix And Questionnaire.