CHAPTER ONE. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study

To illustrate a background to the context and course of discourse, we will be giving an over view of four cylinder diesel engine. The four cylinder diesel engine as implied by its nomenclature is a compression ignition engine which generates power required to drive machines through intermediate functioning of the flywheel. The major difference between it and the other four stroke diesel engines is the number of cylinders. Whereas the four cylinder diesel engine is operationally functional upon the strength of four cylinders working simultaneously under an idea condition to generate the necessary power required to drive any other machine, the one, two, three, six, twelve, sixteen cylinder diesel engines operate upon the strength of the number of cylinders. Under a normal circumstance, it is operationally expected that the four cylinder engine generates more power for work than engines with lesser number cylinder engine.

Diesel engines occupy a large fraction of the quadrant of machines in engineering when it comes to subject of use and application. Diesel engines find a major application as a prime mover (a source via which other machines are driven). On board-ship the marine diesel engines serve as the prime movers, converting mechanical energy from burning fuel into thrust energy in the propeller so as to propel the vessel. Improving on the performance of the engine affects the amount of thrust generated to overcome ship resistance. This entire circle if properly managed reduces cost of running a vessel for desired purposes.

1.2 Problem Statement

The functional performance of diesel engines when evaluated has always been a function of predominant failure which are traceable to the subjects of operational design and maintenance. Any attempt to improve engine performance under these subjects will be a plus to the use and application of diesel engines even in a long time to come.

1.3 The Aim of this Work

 The aim of this work is to improve on the performance of diesel engines by stress reduction using a four cylinder diesel engine as model.

1.4 Objectives of Our Work.

The objectives of this project is to;

Carry out a background study on design considerations made on major engine parts and how their failures affect engine performance. Construct a four cylinder diesel engine with a sectioned lateral view showing the integral moving parts of the engine during operation.

1.5 Project Structure

The flow process or flow pattern of this work starts from with the initial design phase which is the conceptual phase (concept generation), preliminary design phase (feasibility phase), contract design and detailed design phase (actual design). The concept design phase of this work was initiated when as a project, we were instructed to design and construct a four cylinder diesel engine. In our anticipated effort to do this, we came up with a precise attempt to improve the performance rate as regards specific parameters. It was to this end that our incepted design and construction focuses on improving the performance of diesel engine under design, operational and maintenance contexts.  This phase is followed by the preliminary phase which entails research and findings on existing engines, their limitations and how we intend to improve on them. It is at this phase we measure the possibilities of achieving our aim. This aspect is captured in the literature review section of the work. The review clearly give recognition to persons who have worked on the development of engine right from inception (the scratch) and to the spell out limitations by positive critics. It is here also that we spell out the addition or improvement that our work has as regards the solution it has proffered to the seemingly problems that are associated with existing and evaluated designs. This phase is followed up by the contract design of which in this case this team mates and I are in charge of. Next is the detailed design phase which involves all necessary calculations and dimensional analysis on every part of the engine which will facilitate the design and construction of the intended engine. After all said is done, the engine will be tested and approved by the necessary supervisors.




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