Boilers are pressure vessels designed to heat water or produce steam which can then be used to provide space heating and/ or service water heating to a building. In most commercial heating applications, the heating source in the boiler is a natural gas fired burner. Oil fired burners and electric resistance heaters can be used as well. Steam is preferred over hot water in some applications, including absorption cooling, kitchen, laundries, sterilizers and steam driven equipment. Capehart, B. (2006). 

Boiler is multipurpose equipment in all manufacturing industries. Industries like: Nigeria bottling company, textile mail, laundries, breweries, matches company e.t.c. A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion and transfer heat to water until it becomes hot water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then useable for transferring the heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam, it’s volume increases about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gun powder. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment and should be treated carefully. When liquid is heated up to the gaseous state, it evaporates, this process is known as evaporation. 

Any part of the boiler metal that actually contributes to making steam is known as heat surface. Heating surface is any part of the boiler; hot gases for combustion are on one side and water on the other side. Albert Oladele. (2017).

The burner is meant for the combustion generated, while the boiler is meant for building steam. The combination of the boiler and the burner and vertical boilers can be easily differentiated apart from their physical view. Horizontal boilers and vertical boilers can be so easily differentiated apart from their physical view. Horizontal boilers are bottom supported while the vertical boilers are top supported.  ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL.CODE (BPVC) 2010

Since boiler is a closed metallic vessel, heating water above the atmospheric pressure, steam could be generated at the desired pressure and temperature. To heat the water fuels like: coal, diesel oil, gas etc may be use. The function of a boiler is to evaporate water into steam at constant pressure and to supply the required type of steam.


1.1 Aim 

To study the operation, maintenance, and repair of steam boiler. To operate the steam boiler in a low cost avoid any explosion during operation. 

To promote the safe operation of electric steam boiler.

1.2 Objectives  

⦁ To Identify the terms associated with  steam boilers 

⦁ To Identify the components of a steam system

⦁ Todescribe the role and application the steam system plays in the function of a boiler system.

⦁ To Identify the components of a feed water system

⦁ Todescribe the role and application the feed water system plays in the function of a boiler system.

⦁ To Identify the components of the fuel and air system 

⦁ To describe the roles and application the fuel and air system plays in the function of a boiler system.

⦁ To Analyze conservation of heat energy by various component to maximize efficiency and minimize cost.

⦁ To Steam production.

⦁ To get acquitted with the operation of steam boiler.

⦁ To Steam boiler regulations.

The steam boiler, aim and objective of studying was due to a very serious boiler explosion occurred in Calcutta in the year 1863 which caused the loss of several lives.

1.3 Background 

The main stay technology for generating heating or process energy is the package steam boiler. This type of boiler has proven to be highly efficient and cost effective in generating steam and hot water.

Selecting the right boiler equipment for the process however requires a thorough evaluation according to several criteria.

⦁ Reviewing boiler types

⦁ Comparing features and benefit

⦁ Determining fuel consumption and also boiler efficiency. If these evaluation criteria, a key factor is fuel consumption or boiler efficiency. Thompson 1996

Steam boiler is of very ancient origin. The introduction of famous James Watt’s improved steam engine from 1769 to 1775 onwards resulted in great                            improvement in steam plants. Indian BoilerIbrTormsAct (1923).

A large number of today’s processes and heating application is powered by steam and hot water. Boiler’s roots goes back to the late 1700s and early 1800s with the development of the kettle-type boiler, which simply boil water into steam. The water was placed above a fixed fire box and then boiled into steam. Albert Oladele (2017).

For most boiler investments, the initial cost generally represents only small portion of the cost, while fuel and maintenance cost actually cost represents the major portion of cost. The Control of Boiler’s 2nd Edition.



From the operation, maintenance, research, results, and analysis of the function and operation of steam boiler, conclusion can be made thus:

1. Identifying the terms associated with steam boiler and the component of steam system that plays the function of a boiler system. Working on steam boiler without engaging in any accident throughout the operation by following the guidelines of maintenance of steam boiler. Hazard was eliminated from the equipment itself and from the operator.

2. Mode of operation based on working principle of steam boiler and its application without having overheating of the system by checking of leakage from the water tank to connecting and also avoiding  solid particles in the water used in boiler.

3. From observation, it can be concluded the steam boiler is a dangerous system due to its boiler, and explosion of the boiler and lead to death of the operator. Engaging ourselves with safety equipment makes our be at alert during emergency.

Carrying out the study of steam boiler as project as given the privilege and opportunity to understand the importance operations, and maintenance of steam boiler.

Boilers have several strength that as made them have common features of buildings. They have a long life, can achieve efficient up to 95% or greater, and provide an effective method of heating a building and in case of steam systems requires little or no pumping energy. However fuel cost can be considerable, regular maintenance is required, and of maintenance is delayed, repair can be costly. 

Guidance for the construction, operation and maintenance of boilers is provided primarily by the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), which produce the best resources. 

- Rules for construction of heating boilers 

- Recommended rules for care and operation of heating boiler 

Conclusively, coal as been the most widely used fuel in power plant. Coal fired power plants boiler uses different kinds of machinery that converts heat energy produced from combustion into mechanical energy 


The student’s project leading to the award of National Diploma and Higher National Diploma has been introduce so as to be able to show the extent of student’s knowledge, especially the technological students who interpret their theoretical knowledge into practice by testing, designing, and constructing variety of structural elements, to perform their functions appropriately. 

Would utmost make recommendations to make the project programmers more effective.

1. The Polytechnics/University should help student how to operate boilers effectively not only for the purpose to excel in the project but also to work in plant in their carrier if they eventually find themselves there. 

2. The school authority should create a committee whereby they are meant to be a watch day in the workshop; to act as maintenance officers so as to prevent unwanted accident in the workshop. 

3. The institution should create a forum where by award will be given to student that comes out with a very good grade in the studying of boiler has a project work. This will instigate the students to show and devote much time in the studying of steam boilers. 

4. Student should be given project outing to source specific plant for some given period of time, and which won’t affect their other programs. So as to achieve more knowledge, and get acquainted to the way things are actually done in industrial plant.

5. First aid treatment should be placed in the workshop for quick attention to accident and most be placed where everyone in the workshop could easily see it.

6. Government should create agencies whose purpose are to go around different institution to inspect the operation, maintenance, case study of steam boilers, and to help in the replacement of boilers to modern ones of required.



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