STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT'S EXPENDITURE AND REVENUE FROM 2003-2008 ( A CASE STUDY NBS, KADUNA)
A SURVEY OF THE INFLUENCE OF CHILD ABUSE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN METROPOLIS
The study surveyed the influence of on the child abuse on academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected students.
A questionnaire was the major instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation.
The results indicated that the respondents were abused by their different parents; no significant relationship was found between child abuse and student’s academic performance when correlated. There is also no significant influence of child abuse on the academic performance of students.
It was recommended that public enlightenment campaign should be carried out on the danger of child abuse.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF TABLES xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
General Questions 7
Research Hypotheses 7
Significance of the Study 9
Delimitation of the Study 10
Definition of Terms (Operational) 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Child Abuse 12
Pattern of Child Abuse 22
Prevalence of Child Abuse 27
Consequence of Child Labour/Errand Child 31
Appraisals of the Related Literature 36
CHAPTER THREE: REEARCH METHODS
Research Design 38
Population of the Study 39
Sample and Sampling Technique 39
Validity of the Instrument 40
Reliability of the Instrument 41
Administration of the Instrument 41
Data Analysis 42
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Hypothesis Testing 45
Discussion of Results 49
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
Implication of the Study 54
Limitation of the study 55
Suggestion for further studies 55
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Sex 43
Table 2:Distribution of Participants by Parental
Table 3: Distribution of Participants by Age Group 44
Table 4: Distribution of Participants by Family Type 44
Table 5: Results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Coefficient on Child Abuse and Student
Table 6: Results of t-test analysis on male and
female performance 46
Table 7: Duncan Multiple Range Test on Students
Performance by Parental Education 47
Table 8: Results of t-test statistics on student
performance by age group 48
Table 9: Results of t-test analysis on the students’
performance by family types 49
Background to the Study
Nigerian children are faced with many problems. Many of them suffer abuse in various forms such as neglect, abandonment and starvation. Some of them are victims of broken homes and conflict laden families. As a result of this, many of them are brought up in either single parent homes to by guardians.
Nigerians have positive attitudes to having and rearing the children (Oyebanre, 1991). This is because, they are considered as continuation of the family generation. Thus, according to Oyebanre (1991), is the reason why the extended family system serves to safeguard the welfare of its members.
Another reason for having children was to complement the family labour force. Garuba (1998) stated that Africans and Nigerians in particular have many children in order to use them for farming. She pointed out that in olden days, the larger your family members, the larger your extra hands to work in the farm and the healthy the individual would be in. thus, children in traditional society are taken to the farm at very tender age to cultivate the land.
It is also part of the child-rearing pattern to see children in the family as part of economic aspect. This was related by Oyebanre (1991) in two categories.
The first category is an aspect of socialization, she explained this method is a way of socializing children into the commercial activities. Thus, children are sent out to hawk commodities like cigarette, Kola, Water, groundnuts, etc. This is meant to teach the child how to count money, giving and collecting change.
The second category as noted by Oyebanre (1991) are the parents affected by economic recession in order to find alternative source of income, they engage their children to hawk commodities so that they (the children) could raise money to support the family. Others send them out as householders or as a child labourer called errand child (omo onise). In whatever form, the purpose is to work in order to raise money for the family sustenance.
In all enumerated practices, the children could be exposed to abuse, neglect and danger which could have adverse effect on the development of the children. Nwaomu (1990) asserted that many parents in Bendel State engaged their children in child labour and refuse to send them to school. This, according to her was because of the monetary gains which might not be used for the child’s benefit.
Many of these children that were engaged in this form of labour experienced different form of abuse, some were physically abused. Example of this form of abuse was a house mistress who poured kerosene on a house girl was beaten to the extent of being unconscious for alleged neglect of a baby put under her care.
Daroven (1995) reported that many children had been exposed to work harzard of various forms, children who are sent to engage in street trading have been found to meet with one form of accident or the other. He explained that some of them have been attack by thieves, beaten and money realized from hawking stolen away. Others, particularly girls, have been exposed to danger of sexual abuse leading to unwanted pregnancies and unclaimed child.
One of the growing concerns in the society seems to be the contribution of child abuse on the behavioural, emotional and living problems of children. All these, according to Gill (1999) are not without adverse effect of child’s development. These include juvenile delinquency, hooliganism, drug abuse, theft, teenage pregnancies, drop out and mass failure in school examinations.
Adegbite (1991) reported that poor academic performance of children could be attributed to the child’s background. This refers to the home in which the child is raised. He reported studies which found children of professionals, executives and clerics who receive parental support to be as advantage and academically performed better than children who are abused by their parents.
Personal experience has also shown that children who are abused could find it difficult to adjust to school situation. He could, therefore, found to be habitual late comers, to be always sleeping in the class while others are learning, to always be in short supply of needed school materials and to be among the backward students in the class. It is also the researcher’s opinion that children in this category need assistance in coping with their situations. This is the area of concern for the study.
Statement of the Problem
Child abuse as one of the social problems plaguing the society could have far reaching effect and constitute block to children’s development. This is because the forms in which most of these children have been abused have prevented them from pursuing normal developmental trends as their colleagues. Thus they face the problem of under development in many areas. (Mustapha, 2002).
Many secondary school children who were abused face many problems including insufficient time for schooling, destruction from the normal academic programme, insufficient time for rest and denial of opportunity of enjoy as other children. All these could have negative effect on the school going and academic performance of secondary school students. This is why, these researchers deem it fit to investigate the effects of child abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of child abuse on students academic performance in Ilorin. I also sought to compare differences between academic performance of students on the basis of sex, age, family type and parental education.
What is the influence of child abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin.
The following hypotheses will be tested in the study:
H01: There is no significant relationship between the influence of child-abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students.
H02: There is no significant difference in the teachers perception of the effects of child-abuse in the academic performance of male and female secondary school students.
H03: There is no significant difference in the teachers perception of the effects of child-abuse in the academic performance of children from illiterate and literate homes.
H04: There is no significant difference in the teachers perception of the effects of child-abuse on the academic performance of young and old secondary school students.
H05: There is no significant difference in the teachers perception of the effects of children from polygamous and monogamous home.
Significance of the Study
The study is very necessary to determine if children that are abuse do well in secondary school or not. This is in view of the psycho-social problem confronting these children on the daily basis. Mass failure is a common phenomenon in our educational institutions, knowing the contribution of child abuse in the lives of young school children is an important factor for embarking on this study.
The study could be useful to the abused children themselves through the knowledge of negative consequences it has on them. They may therefore, learn to adjust and cope with the situation in order to improve on their academic activities.
The children abused could also benefit by knowing the damage they area causing on the lives of the innocent children.
The result of this study could be useful to administrators and educators who can use it for assisting abused children in school and to cope with their situations.
The study is very important to the counsellors. This is because, the result could provide necessary information to be used as sources for counselling. Thus, this could sere as aids to the counsellors for assisting the affected children.
The study may be useful as a source of information on the danger inherent in child abuse. This may propel the general public to rise against the abuse of children’s rights.
Delimitation of the Study
The study investigates the effects of child abuse on the academic performance of primary school children in Ilorin. Data on pupils were collected and analysed across sex, age, parental education and family type.
The study involved 200 randomly selected primary school students. It is however limited to the teachers in the primary schools and the aspect of child abuse measured in the questionnaire.
Definition of Terms (Operational)
The following terms are defined as used in the study.
Abuse: Being subjected to ill treatment or harsh conditions that may not be morally acceptable.
Child Labour: Engaging a child of tender age on very difficult task or labour beyond their capacity.
Errand Children: School going children who engage in manual work such as washing clothes, fetching water, cooking, etc for monetary gains.
This research work was aimed at carrying out statistical analysis of federal government’s revenue and expenditure 2003-2008. Secondary data was obtained from National Bureau of Statistics. The statistical package used is Mintab. The result of the analysis shows that there is positive and strong relationship between expenditure and revenue 0.938 and the regression equation is expenditure = 123 + 0.367 revenue. The regression equation shows that when the revenue increase, the expenditure also increases.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Historical Background of the Study
1.2 Aims of the Study
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Scope of the Study
1.5 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND STATISCAL TOOL(S)
2.1 Nigerian Economy and oil ….
2.2. Inflation in Nigerian economy
2.3 Effect of the global economic meltdown on the Nigeria economy
2.4 Consolidation in the banking system
2.5 Capital base and bank soundness
2.6 Statistical tools
CHAPTER THREE; METHODOLOGY
3.1 Methods of data collection
3.2 Problems encountered in data collection
3.3 Data presentation
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
4.1 Data analysis
4.2 Discussion of result
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Public finance is a field of economics concerned with how government raises money, how that money is spent and the effect of these activities on the economy and on the society.
Expenditure and revenue of the country fall under the topic, public finance. However, in a developing economy like Nigeria, management of moderate deficit financing is tailored toward useful and development oriented projects. This necessitated me to focus attention on the amount of expenditure and revenue generated in Nigeria over the past years.
Government generates revenue from various economic sectors: these are divided into oil and non-oil revenue:
1. Oil Revenue: This is the revenue generated from oil sectors of the economy which comprise:
a. Petroleum profit tax and royalties
b. Others which include revenue from export sales, domestics sales, tax on petroleum products, rents etc.
2. Non Oil Revenue: This is revenue generated from other sectors of the economy other than the oil sector which comprises of:
a. Company income tax
b. Custom and exercise duties
c. Value added tax (V.A.T)
d. Federal government independent revenue which comprises revenue from interest payments rents on government properties, personal income tax of armed forces, police, external affair and federal capital residents
e. Other which include custom levies, education tax etc.
The revenue generated from different sectors of the economy is allocated to:
1. Federation accounts which include transfer to federation accounts from domestic oil sales
2. Value added tax (VAT) pool accounts
3. AFEM surplus account
4. Petroleum Trust Fund
5. JVC Payment account
6. External debt service funds
7. National priority projects fund
8. Other which include transfers to special and excess reserves and education fund
The revenue generated from various sectors of the economy is spent on:
1. Administration which comprises of:
a. General administration
c. Internal security
d. National assembly
2. Economic services which include
b. Roads and construction
c. Transport and communication
d. Other economic services
3. Social and community services which are:
a. Public debt charges
d. Pension and gratuities
e. F.C.T and others
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The National Bureau of statistics (NBS) has a humble beginning starting in 1928 as a statistics unit in the office of the colonial secretary in the cabinet secretariat of British Colonial administration.
In 1947 a more focused reorganization took place with the establishment of a statistics section in the department of customs and exercise which later metamorphosed into a full pledged department of statistics.
In 1949, the departments responsibilities were expanded to form the nucleus of a centralized national statistics office for the country with the adoption of the federal system of government in 1968 central and the regional government had their statistics establishments incorporated into a decentralized National Statistics System (NSS). A legal frame work for statistics operation in Nigeria was unable with the statistics act of 1937. The act gave backing for a decentralized statistical system but advocated collaboration between the central and regional statistical office in addition to co-ordinate their activities.
At independence in 1960, the department of statistics was moved from customs and excuse to the Federal Ministry of Economic Development with its name changed to the federal office of statistics (FOS) in the 1980s further re-organization of the Nigeria statistics system (NSS) led to the Central Bank of Nigeria taking on the collection of financial statistics and the National Population Commission given the responsibility of population statistics including the conduct of census length and collection of vital statistics like birth and death registrations and immigration statistics, as well as the conduct of demography and health surveys.
In 1989, a wholly computerized data management agency was established called National Data Bank (NDB). NDB is a data house, was designed to hold time series data dating back to 1914 when Nigeria was created. The agencies FOS and NDB maintained a complex and over lapping relationship with other members of the National Statistical Offices (NSO) itself. Reforms started the repositioning of the federal office of statistics (FOS) in 2004 when it was merged with the National Data Bank. The reforms in driver by the statistical master plan (SMP) produced by the Federal Government of Nigeria with assistance from the World Bank.
The merged of FOS and NDB led to the establishment of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) to give the agency a National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) to give the agency a National outlook as the apex statistical agency for all the three tiers of government. NBS is expected to co-ordinate system of the production of official statistics all the federal ministries departments and agencies (MDAS), state statistical agencies (SAS) and local government council (LGC). The 1957 statistics act has been repeated and a new bill has been passed to give NBS a legal backing.
1.2 AIM OF THE STUDY
To conduct a statistical study into public finance of the federation, that is revenue and expenditure of the federal government of Nigeria (2003-2008) using regression analysis.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To have an insight of the amount of revenue generated and expenditure for the period of 2000-2011
2. To show the relationship between revenue and expenditure using correlations analysis
3. To determine the degree of the occurrence between expenditure and revenue using correlation analysis.
4. To forecast for future revenue and expenditure using time series analysis
5. To make necessary recommendation on the analysis
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will be based only on the revenue and expenditure of the federal government for the period. The data on this project work is given in billions of Naira and it is only an annual basis.
Data refers to the collection of specific information, it is collected to enable the researcher understand the environment under study and to achieve specific objective.
The data in this project work collected from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). It is a secondary data extracted from their statistical bulletin.
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Public Finance: This is a field of economics concerned with how government raises money, how that is spent, and the effects of these activities on the economy and on the society.
Budget: This is a forecast of expenditure and revenue for a specific period of tie.
Revenue: This is the income of a government from all sources, used to pay for a nation’s expenses.
Recurrent revenue: This includes tax receipts and non-tax receipts within the fiscal year.
Capita revenue: This covers receipts from non financial assets used in production for more than one year.
Expenditure: This is an outflow of resource from government to other sectors of the economy, whether required or unrequested.
Recurrent expenditure: Are payments for non-payable transaction within one year.
Capital expenditure: Are payments for non-financial assets used in production process for more than one year..