A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE EFFECT OF WEEDS CONTROL ON MAIZE YIELD


A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE EFFECT OF WEEDS CONTROL ON MAIZE YIELD   

PREFACE

The study of statistical analysis on effect of weed control on maize yield is very important because it shed more light on different methods which weed can be control and treatments.

This project entails different treatment of weed control method and three level of replicate are considered in each year i.e. 2008, 2009 and 2010 the analysis of variance was carried out on the data collected form Kwara State Agricultural Development Project (KWADP) Ilorin for treatment of the effect of weed control in the maize control yield, which is basically on three treatment which are as follow manual weed control, chemical method and biological method, base on the result of the analysis.

We recommend that the use of chemical and biological are more preferable for the control of weed in case of further experiment.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgment iv

Preface v

Table of content vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 History of maize

1.2 Maize production, cultivation and planting

1.3 Economic importance

1.4 Aims and objective of the study

1.5 Terminologies in experimental design

1.6.1 Source of data description

1.7 How do we select an experiment design?

1.7.1 What is experiment design (doe) 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Weed flora

2.2 Material and methods

2.2.1 Experimental site (location)

2.2.2 Soil characters of the experimental site

2.3 Weed control method in maize

2.3.1 Manual method of weed control

2.3.2 Chemical method of weed control 

2.3.3 Biological method  

2.4 Pest of maize

2.4.1 Stem barters

2.4.2 Grasshoppers

2.5 Disease of maize

2.5.1 Corn smut

2.5.2 Maize rust

2.5.3 Leaf spot

2.5.4 Maize streak

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology and data presentation

3.1 The study

3.2 Anova table for completely randomized design (crd)

3.4 Data presentation on effect of maize yield for year 2008 (show in the table below)

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Analysis of data

4.4.1 Analysis with treatment structure (year 2008)

4.2 Analysis with treatment structure (year 2009)

4.3 Analysis with treatment structure (year 2010)

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation

5.1 Discussion of result

5.2 Recommendation and conclusion

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This project work is based on the analysis of an experiment where this effect of weed control method tested on the gain yield of maize. The experiment was carried out by the Kwara State agricultural development project (KWADP) Ilorin, during three consecutive years starting form 2008 to 2010.

1.6 HISTORY OF MAIZE

Maize belong to a family of grass called cereals with botanical name ZEAMAYS.

Maize is an animal plant of about 4.6 highlights inflorescence terminates the axis and product both male and female flowers. It originated in a wild state in the lowlands of tropical Southern American continent, probably in Mexico. Maize was grown from grain with success at Woburn between 1949 and 1956 (Man 1977).

Maize proceeded North ward and played a prominent port in the civilization of the ay as an azlects, it has new spread all over the world following the early close movement by explores and traders it has distributed along the West African early in the sixteenth century by Portuguese. It has become a dominant food crop in many sub humid area of African of which Nigeria is one.

Maize is the largest of the cereal, all over the annual grass attaining a height, with a jointed stem which is solid and contains a considerable amount of sugar when young. The leaves are large and narrow with way margins.

 The temperature of both the soil and are important, especially during the growing season form May to September the main (average) summer temperature of 75of is the best more favorable.

CLASSIFICATION OF MAIZE

The classification of maize is based on the anatomy of the leaf, physiological nature of he plant green colour and sizes. Also maize could be divided according to the structure of the grain, which depends upon the genetic characters.

We may have biotical classification as follows: kingdom of plant, division of angiosperm, family of GERMINE, class of MAYDEA genes of ZEAMAYS and species of LINN.

Some variety of maize has high power of combating disease while some may not. Other may be granted based on the amount of protein, vitamin and carbohydrates contents e.g. popcorn, hint maize, dent maize, sweet maize and flour or set maize.

1.7 MAIZE PRODUCTION, CULTIVATION AND PLANTING

It is same at the beginning of rainy season, seeds are treated with fungicide, and maize requires soils that have well cultivated with amount of rainfall. The choice of pant in ridges or on the flat land depends on soil conditions. Mostly, planted on ridges with three seed in hole that is 2.5cm to 3.8cm deep. Rain forest zone is a better maize preaching area in the country due to more favourable rainfall and higher solar radiation.

Planting is done in mid March to early April for the early maize while late maize is planed by August to mid September and planted in holes of 30cm to 50cm along the raw and 60cm to 90cm space between the raw.

FERTILIZER APPLICATION

Maize gown best on rich well-drained natural or alkaline soil become maize use large quantities be increased by he application on nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizer.

Weeding is an important factor in he reduction of leaf disease and offer completion early in the growth of the crop. Weed offer a great competition to maize especially in the first two weeks of growth, and most controlled for optimum performance. The methods of weed control can be divided into:

1. Cultural method: Good farming practices contribution significantly to the control of weeds on farm lands weed-free seeds should be planted at all times.

2. Mechanical method: Tillage is an important mechanical method of weed control primary tillage uproots weeds and buries them. The use of Han hoeing, tillage moving flooding, heating and smoothening with non-living materials.

3. Biological method:  Theoretically, the organism’s hat may be so used as certain insects and disease causing (pathogenic) micro organism. That the uses of parasites like insets and fungus that lives on weeds. Cropping and competition method involve he production of crop that can complete in favorably with weeds.

4. Chemical methods: The implication of chemicals (called herbicides) for the purpose of controlling weeds is widely practiced. Herbicides may be applied to the soil directly to the shoots of the weeds. If property done, chemical methods of weed control are usually very effective. Destroy the crop if uncontrolled. Birds are one of the pest maize grain or seed. Seed weevil usually attacks he ripe pods in the field and seeds in the store.

The recommendation for the control of insect pets maize include planting, spraying with velox 85 can control the pest. And crop rotation can also reduced the indene of he pest.

1.8 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE

Maize grain is very nutritious with high percentage of easily digests carbohydrates, fats and proteins, including few substances.

Maize s an important food grown much in Nigeria, Ghana and some other West African countries the grain is prepared in different ways to be eaten by man. It can boiled were wood is scarce (purse glove in 1977).

1.9 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

a. To determine the appropriate level of weed control method this will course high yield maize.

b. To determine the best weed control for the three years.

c. To compare the yield of maize for the years.

1.10 TERMINOLOGIES IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

Experiment: Is the planning and collection of measurements or observation according to pre-arranged plan for the purpose if obtaining factual evidence for or against the stated theory or hypothesis.

The concept of experiment has a wide application to those in the field of agriculture, biological science, industries, medicine and physical science.

Design of experiment can be broadly divided into two parts namely:

i. treatment design

ii. Experimental design

i. Treatment method: Involves the selection of treatment for an experiment an example of which is a factorial experiment, an example of which is a fact oral experiment.

ii. Experimental design: Is a set of rules for allocating treatments to experimental unit. Each restriction imposed by the experimental design has definite purpose

iii. Experimental unit of plot: This is defined as the smallest unit to which a treatment is applied and on which an observation is made. This may be on row basis or by plots. If it is by row, each row is recorded individually and it it’s plot, it is recorded on plot basis.

iv. Randomization: This is allocation of treatment to units which that the probability that a particular treatment will be allocated to a particular units is the same for all treatments. This is to ensure that a particular treatment will be consistently favored or handicap.

v. Treatment: This is an entity or phenomenon under study in an experiment for the purpose of this project; different levels of spacing and weed control method being trend for maize are the different treatments.

vi. Replication: This is replication of the same treatment on different experimental units. It makes it possible to minimize the bias and asses the mean square error required for testing presence of treatment effect.   

TABLE 1.6 EXPERIMENTAL LAYOUT DOE CRD

Replicatetotal

RiR2RjErii

Treatment y1Y2

Ti Yii Y12 …..rij Ri

T2 T21 Y22 ….r2j r2

T3 Y31 Y32 …..r3j R3

1 1 1 1 1

1111

1 1 1 1 1

1111

Ti Ri1 Ri2 Rij r….

Ti Ri1 Ri2 Rij Tr

T1 Tr

Ey.i y.1 r.2 r…EErij

ii

grand Total

1.7.2 SOURCE OF DATA DESCRIPTION

The Data for this project is secondary it is collected form Kwara State Agricultural Development Project, Ilorin in Research and Planning Unit Section.

1.8 HOW DO WE SELECT AN EXPERIMENT DESIGN?

The choice of an experiment design depends on the objective of the experiment and the number o factors to be investigated.

1.8.1 WHAT IS EXPERIMENT DESIGN (DOE) 

This is one in which an experimental deliberately change one or more process variables (or factors) in order to observe the effect the change have on one or more response variables. The (statistical) design of experiments (DOE) is an efficient procedure for planning experiment so that the data obtained can be analyzed to yield valid and objectives conclusion.

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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE EFFECT OF WEEDS CONTROL ON MAIZE YIELD



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