UYO RESIDENT'S REACTIONS TO ATLANTIC FM PROGRAMME (THE MANDATE)
The major concern of this work was to survey Uyo residents’ reaction to Atlantic FM programme ‘The Mandate’. The objectives of the study were: to examine the level of awareness, find out the effect of programme, examine the frequency of listenership, ascertain the gratification derived and find out the reactions of Uyo residents on the programme. The research technique and research instrument used were the survey and questionnaire. The population of the study was 1,247,643, while the sample size was 400 based on the computation of Taro Yamane’s formula. The multi-stage sampling methods of cluster, purposive and systematic sample were used to select the respondents. The data collected for the study were analyzed through the use of frequency tables and simple percentages. The findings show that Uyo residents are 100%aware of the programme and 19% respondents listen to the programme because it keeps them informed and updated on elections, 18% respondents listen to the programme because it keeps them enlightened on political matters and 11%respondentslisten to the programme because it gives them relevant information about candidates to vote for. It was concluded that the programme enjoys high listenership among Uyo residents. It was recommended among other things, that the producer of the programme should not be reluctant but continues to enrich the contents by using adequate balance and fairness in their analysis of content to give all shades of opinion fair hearing.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE
Title Page - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - vii
Table of Contents - - - - viii
List of Tables - - - - - ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - 6
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 6
1.5 Justification for the Study - - - - - 7
1.6 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - 7
1.7 Limitations of the Study - - - - - 8
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms - - - - 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Review of Concepts - - - - - - 10
2.1.1 The Concept of Media Audience - - - - 10
2.1.2 The Radio Audience - - - - - - 12
2.1.3 The Nature of the Radio Audience - - - - 13
2.1.4 The Concept of Radio as a Medium - - - 20
2.1.5 Radio Broadcasting in Nigeria - - - - 22
2.1.6 The Concept of Programming - - - - 24
2.1.7 Audience Reaction to Broadcast Programmes - - 26
2.1.8 Concept of Selectivity - - - - - 28
2.2 Review of Opinions - - - - - - 31
2.3 Review of Studies - - - - - - 34
2.4 Theoretical Framework - - - - - 37
2.4.1 Uses and Gratifications Theory - - - - 38
2.4.2 Social Judgment Theory - - - - - 40
2.4.3 The Individual Difference Theory - - - - 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Technique - - - - - - 44
3.2 Population of the Study - - - - - 45
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure - - - 45
3.4 Description of Research Instrument - - - 47
3.5 Validity of Research Instrument - - - - 48
3.6 Method of Data Collection - - - - - 48
3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - 49
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - 50
4.2 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 56
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONAND RECOMMENDATION
51. Summary of Findings - - - - - 67
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 68
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 68
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies - - - - 69
1.1 Background to the Study
Communication is part of every human life as far as two or more persons are involved for the sole aim of giving and receiving information for easy understanding and feedback.
According to Knick and Williams (2006), communication is a definite process involving the source or sender, encoding of cue or prompt, the message or purpose, channel or medium of transmission, decoding the receiver and feedback. Thus, communication is often regarded as an essential activity that man and even animals cannot do without.
The changes brought about by communication to the human society can be explained with reference to the functions of communication propounded by Seal MacBride (2012):
1. the collection, storage and processing of news and information;
4. the provision of a forum for debate and discussion on public issues;
5. the transmission of knowledge and intellectual development (education);
6. cultural promotion;
7. the provision of entertaining for collective recreation and enjoyment; and
8. the integration of ratios and societies with one another so as to understand and appreciate others’ living conditions, view points and aspirations better.
Radio broadcasting plays a major role in world information because; it is the primary means by which information and entertainment are delivered to the public in virtually every nation around the world. Radio is a powerful mass medium used in educating, disseminating and transmitting information, imparting institutions and giving entertainment. It is a simple and cheap medium readily available. With modern technology, radio can be carried around without it being obvious.
According to Linje (2012), despite the rise of social media and the dawn of the digital age, radio still remains one of the most powerful communication tools in the 21st century. In nation where internet and electricity are limited, it is the most persuasive medium for connecting isolated communities. Because of its portability, affordability and easy accessibility, radio can find its place everywhere, and its major advantage over mass media of communication is that virtually everyone can access it, ranging from the physically impaired to those in the rural areas as well as those in urban areas.
In Nigeria, it is assumed that almost all homes have a radio set. In Akwa Ibom State, there are eight radio stations, namely:
1. 90.5 - AKBC FM (Akwa Ibom Broadcasting Corporation, a State Government radio Station),
2. 101.1 - Planet FM (a private radio station)
3.95.1-Comfort FM (a private radio station)
4. 100.7 - Uniuyo FM (University of Uyo radio Station)
5. 104.9 - Heritage FM (Heritage Polytechnic, Eket radio station)
6. 105.9 - Inspiration FM (a private radio station),
7. 107.5 - Gospel Revolution FM, and
8. 104.5 - Atlantic FM (a federal government radio station).
1.1:1 Profile of Atlantic FM and ‘The Mandate’
Atlantic FM is the selected station for this study. It operates on the frequency modulation hand of 104.5 megahertz. It is located at Nsukara Offot, along Nwaniba dual carriage wing, Uyo. Atlantic FM Programmes are broadcast in English, vernacular and pidgin. The station started transmission on 1st February, 2011. It has “promise fulfilled” as its catchword. It airs programmes ranging from entertainment, religious, political, health, sports, news, educative and informative programmes among others. One of such programmes is ‘The Mandate’.
The Mandate, produced by Mr. Aniekan came into existence during the general election in 2015. It is a station programme that is set to achieve objectivity. It is transmitted once a week, every Thursday from 1.pm to 2.pm. The Programme broadcast is in English language only; the programme is aimed at enlightening the public on issues around the election and bringing in studio guests key stakeholders to deliberate thereby sensitizing the public on the ongoing election. The programmes gives information regarding issues on governance, accountability, political participation, inclusiveness, drawing public opinion around government policies and polices in general.
People who listen to this programme do so probably because of the benefits they derive from it. By so doing, they are bound to react either favourably or unfavourably to this programme. It is assumed that there is a close relationship between audience reaction of any media programme and their level of acceptance or consumption of such programmes. In other words, the extent to which a programme will be popular or unpopular with an audience is directly dependent on the reaction of the programme by audience.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Radio is a good medium for informing, educating and mobilizing people largely because of the fact that it is easily accessed and acquired. Because of its accessibility, many people listen to radio for news and other information needs.
Information disseminated through programmes on radio is received by a large audience, and has the ability to cause people to react according to the message received. The Atlantic FM Programme ‘The Mandate’ is produced with the aim of informing and educating its listeners in a balanced and timely manner.
The mass media audience (radio listeners inclusive) comprises of people who are different from others in many aspects. They are heterogeneous, and those differences may be social, educational, psychological, cultural, intellectual, political and otherwise.
The above differences lead to diverse reactions of ‘The Mandate’ aired on Atlantic FM. No matter the uniqueness of a programme, majority of the listeners may consider such a programme as uninteresting if the programme does not satisfy their information needs and other issues. Others might stay glued to their radio sets because they derive satisfaction from listening to that same programme.
It is assumed that the majority of Uyo residents have been listening to ‘The Mandate’. It is also assumed that most of these listeners know the essence of the programme, especially during election; it informs the listeners what is going on in other places or how the election is being conducted in other places, and it makes them air their views on how the election is going on or how it has been.
In the light of above, it is important to know the audience reaction to ‘The Mandate’. Therefore the question is: how do Uyo residents react to Atlantic FM’s programme ‘The Mandate’. Why am I researching this study
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study were to:
i. examine the level of awareness of Uyo residents about ‘The Mandate’ on Atlantic FM;
ii. examine the frequency of listenership of ‘The Mandate’ by Uyo residents;
iii. ascertain the gratification derived by Uyo residents from ‘The Mandate’ on Atlantic FM;
iv. find out the effect of the programme on Uyo residents’ political behaviour during elections;and
v. find out Uyo residents’ reaction on the Atlantic FM Programme ‘The Mandate’.
1.4 Research Questions
This study seeks to answer the following research questions:
i. To what extent do Uyo resident know about ‘The Mandate’ on Atlantic FM?
ii. How often do Uyo residents listen to ‘The Mandate’?
iii. What gratifications do Uyo residents obtain from ‘The Mandate’ on Atlantic FM?
iv. How does the programme affect the political behaviour of Uyo residents during elections?
v. How do Uyo residents react to the Atlantic FM programme ‘The Mandate’?
1.5 Justification for the Study
With the knowledge of listeners’ reaction of ‘The Mandate’ on Atlantic FM, this study will help the progammes’ department of the Atlantic FM have a better knowledge of the influence of their programmes on the audience/listeners. It will help the producer to see how he can promote, repackage and improve on the progamme to achieve the purpose for which it is aired.
The outcome of this study will also be an important resource material that will help the progamme producer to determine the impact of the progamme. This research work may as well be useful to other researchers interested in this area of study.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
This study, ‘Uyo Residents’ Reaction to the Atlantic FM progamme‘The Mandate’, were delimited byUyo residential areas (Aka road, Abak road, Oron road, Ikot Ekpene road, Nwaniba road and Wellington Bassey way).This study focused only on listeners of ‘The Mandate’ on Atlantic FM.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The remarkable problem encountered by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study, was the unwillingness of some respondents to fill the questionnaire as they demanded for some pecuniary rewards. However, this was overcome through perseverance and persistent explanations to them that the work was mainly for academic purposes. Also when the enquiry of the programme was requested from the producer, explanations of the enquiry was desperately demanded with identity proofs. (Student ID card and an approved topic proposal)
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
(a) Reaction: The response to the stimulus or effect generated by listening to the programme ‘The Mandate’.
(b) Programme: A segment of content intended for broadcast on radio. Also an item broadcast between stated times on radio.
(c) The Mandate: An Atlantic FM Programme aired in English language every Thursday from 1-2pm which is aimed at enlightening listeners on political participation, governance, government policies and politics in general.
(d) Uyo Residents: The people who are living in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, who listen to the Atlantic FM Programme ‘The Mandate’..