THE IMPACT OF GRAPHIC PRESENTATION IN NEWSPAPER PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF THE TIDE NEWSPAPER AND BEACON NEWSPAPER
Photograph contributes to newspaper publication by beautifying newspaper pages and complement text in newspaper. Photograph is well placed usually at the cover page or right corner on the pages it creates interest and desires to read more.
This study examinedthe impact of graphic presentation in newspaper production, examined the features of graphic presentation in newspaper production and identified the advantages of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
Simple random sampling with proportionate representation was used to determine sample size 120 from a sampling from the population. Structured questionnaire was used for data collection and this was supplemented with interview of key informants. Data were analysedand represented clearly and accurately using frequency tables and percentages. Results showed that photograph contribute to newspaper publication by beautifying newspaper pages and complement text in newspaper. Picture of crisis and political photographs draw attention more than any others especially picture that involve political clashes.
In conclusion, photographs play a very prominent role in newspaper and the world of print in general as it helps to draw the attention of the people to the newspaper and story while it communicates message even to the illiterate. It was recommended that Print media should always use only the important photos in terms of size. Photojournalists are expected to be the eye of their newspaper everywhere and every time by taken the most appropriate photos.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1Background of the Study-----
1.2Statement of General Problem----
1.3Objective of the Study------
1.5Significance of the Study-----
1.6Scope of the Study------
1.7Definition of Terms------
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK- - - - - - -
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK - - - - - - -
2.3REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES------
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - -
3.3 Area of the Study - - - - - - - -
3.4 Population of Study - - - - - - - -
3.5 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - - - -
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - -
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - -
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - -
3.9 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - -
3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - - -
4.3 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - -
4.4 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - -
4.5 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - - - -
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Graphic presentations have a powerful impact on a viewer’s attitude, and this impact cannot be created by text alone. In a newspaper context, the presence of a photograph will significantly alter the consumer’s attitude toward the framed issue. Graphic presentation is not just doing any drawing you like. There are conventions and various styles and techniques that are used. Graphic presentation as the name suggests is communication using graphic elements. These elements include symbols such as glyphs and icons, images such as drawings and photographs, and can include the passive contributions of substrate, color and surroundings. It is the process of creating, producing, and distributing material incorporating words and images to convey data, concepts, and emotions. The field of graphic presentations encompasses all phases of the graphic communications processes from origination of the idea (design, layout, and typography) through reproduction, finishing and distribution of two- or three-dimensional products or electronic transmissions
Houston, Childers, and Heckler (1987) noted that little research examined the effects of nonverbal message elements on consumer information processing. They also proposed that the nature of pictorial stimuli suggests that pictures can be used effectively to embed expectations within a message or news. If this is true, there are many implications for advertisers and news producers alike. For instance, Singh, Lessig, and Kim (2000) show that advertisers use pictures for several reasons, including getting attention. In newspapers, visuals have proven to be a crucial connection point, and Moses (2002) noted that graphics, photographs, and headlines get far more attention from readers than text does. In a marketing saturated environment, winning the consumer’s attention is half of the battle. Furthermore, the mere association of a product with a positively evaluated stimulus like an attractive picture, regardless of the picture content, may be sufficient to alter attitude toward the product “without any rational belief change preceding the effect” (Harris, 1983).
If it is understood how consumers react to pictures in the marketing context, insight can be gained into how photographs serve to influence news consumers. Advertisement and news practices appear to be predicated on the belief that vivid information is more persuasive than pallid information, with vividness typically viewed as a characteristic of the stimulus; hence; pictures are vivid and verbal statements are pallid (Kisielius&Sternthal, 1984). Persuasion is usually measured by asking subjects to make attitudinal judgments about the message promotion. Within the advertising and news framework, one can study the impact of images in relation to influencing consumer perception and attitude.
The research of graphic presentation in news and advertising has focused on two broad categories: the effects of pictorial messages on memory and the impact of pictures on consumer attitudinal response (Houston et al., 1987). The attitudinal studies are significant because the manner in which graphics influences a consumer’s opinion toward an advertisement or news could realistically explain the way a photograph influences a news consumer’s opinion about an article, or the issue discussed in the article. Petty and Cacioppo (1981) have defined attitude as “a general and enduring positive or negative feeling about some person, object, or issue” (Morris, Woo, Geason, & Kim, 2002). The visual component in advertisements may affect both the formation of product attribute beliefs and attitude toward the advertisement (Mitchell, 2001). If the images in an advertisement or news can directly affect a consumer’s perception and attitude, what is portrayed in those images is crucial.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Mitchell (2001), the visual elements of news and advertisements may affect perception and attitudes in at least two ways. First, consumers might make presumptions about the news or advert based on the graphic information presented. These presumptions may “result in the formation or change of beliefs about the published information” (Mitchell, 2001, p. 21). Second, if the graphic element is positively or negatively evaluated, it might affect a brand attitude operating through perception toward the news and information. In essence, the valence of a photograph can significantly influence a consumer’s perception toward information. More often, graphics element are constantly used in newspaper production with a view of providing the readers the vivid information. This development has led to provision of accurate and correct information on various sensitive topics. However, the researcher is examining the impact of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the impact of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
2. To examine the features of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
3. To identify the advantages of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the impact of graphic presentation in newspaper production?
2. What are the features of graphic presentation in newspaper production?
3. What are the advantages of graphic presentation in newspaper production?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. The outcome of this study will educate the managers of newspaper production companies and the general public on the impact, features and advantages of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the impact and features of graphics presentation in newspaper production.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.8 Definition of terms
Newspaper: a printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, articles, advertisements, and correspondence.
Graphic: Graphics are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain.
Production: the action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured.
Graphic presentation: is the art of designing advertisements, newspapers, and books by combining pictures and words.
Harris, R.J. (1983). Information processing research in advertising. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Houston, M. J., Childers, T. L., & Heckler, S.E. (1987).Picture-word consistency and the elaborative processing of advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 24, 359-369.
Kisielius, J., &Sternthal, B. (1984). Detecting and explaining vividness effects in attitudinal judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 21, 54-64.
Mitchell, A. A. (1986). The effect of verbal and visual components of advertisements on brand attitudes and attitude toward the advertisement. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 12-24.
Morris, J. D., Woo, C., Geason, J. A., & Kim, J. (2002). The power of affect: Predicting intention. Journal of Advertising Research, 42(3), 7-17.
Moses, M. (2002). Readers consume what they see. Poynter Report. Retrieved from: poynterinstitute.org.
Petty, R. E., &Cacioppo, J. T. (1981).Attitudes and persuasive classic and contemporary approaches. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.
Singh, S. N., Lessig, V. P., & Kim, D. (2000). Does your ad have too many pictures? Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (1/2), 11-27.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary The study evaluates the impact of photograph on magazine cover page (A case study of Tell and Ovation Magazine). However, it is obvious that photographs play a very prominent role in magazine and the world of print in general as it helps to draw the attention of the people to the magazine and story while it communicates message even to the illiterate. Magazine use photographs in its daily publication because it attracted readers, it passes messages and it beautifies magazine pages. The position of photographs in magazine.cover pages draw readers’ attention. It is noted that the photographs that drawn attention are political photo, crisis photo and oddity. There is no way magazine industry can succeed without photography as it add lots of value to the publication while full colour photography draws attention easily than others. Whether graphics or photograph retained the attention of readers to a high extent, readers find photograph interesting when reading.
5.2 Conclusion Having properly and carefully reviewed relevant literature and study the responses of the respondents, some logical conclusion can be made here. It is very safe to logically conclude that magazine without the use of photograph will be nothing but look like a letter or textbook and such publication cannot interest readers. Also, photographs draw the attention of the reader to the most prominent news and issue especially when placed at the front page of magazine. Placement also used to set agenda on what public will debate upon that day. In fact the headline scanners and photo scanner always find it easy to know the most important news and information of the day. Without messing word, photographs communication message than what one thousand words can tell.
5.3 Recommendations After thorough examination of the study, the following are recommended: Print media should always use only the important photos in terms of size. Photojournalists are expected to be the eye of their magazine everywhere and every time by taken the most appropriate photos. Photo journalism should be taught separately in higher institution just like many institutions have separated marketing, public relations and advertising to enable students have broad knowledge of what the work is and the challenges ahead of them. Photo journalists should be trained and re-retrained to meet up with the digital photo technology..