A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF NOLLYHOOD MOVIES ON THE DRESSING PATTERNS OF STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ABIA STATE
ABSTRACT: This study, The Influence of Nollyhood movies on the Dressing Patterns of Students of Tertiary Institutions in Abia state, notes that nollyhood movies mediate in the culture of students of tertiary institutions in Abia state especially as it relates to their dressing patterns. Research has shown that, Movies, like books, are important medium of cultural transmission and socialization. Thus, the concern on media Influence has led to the development of different communication theories in an attempt to explain the relationship between communication messages and their Influence on the respondent. The thrust of this work was therefore, to examine the Influence that nollyhood movies have on the dressing patterns of students of tertiary institutions in Abia state. The survey research method was adopted, with a sample size of 400. The questionnaire was the research instrument for the collection of data. Findings showed that nollyhood movies celebrate African values in their dress patterns. This is in contrast with the obvious practice in Western and foreign movies where the contemporary trend is in the swap of roles between the male and the female gender as manifested in the swap of dress culture. This shows that nollyhood movies have Influence on the pattern of dressing of students of tertiary institutions in Abia State. The study recommends among other things that the nollyhood movies industry should use their medium to promote the very rich cultural values of Nigeria and Africa. More so, the Tourism industry should cash in on the large audience that the entertainment sector is drawing, to re-brand, package and present the good image of Nigeria as a country of economic opportunities and decent moral values.TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle Page iCertification iiDedication iiiAcknowledgements ivTable Of Contents vList Of Tables viiAbstract viiiCHAPTER ONE Background of study 1 Statement of Problem 3 Objectives of study 4 Research Questions 5 Significance of Study 5 Scope of the Study 6 Definition of Terms 6References 8CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW 9 Focus of Review 9 Historical Analysis of Nollyhood movies in Nigeria 9 Influences of Nollyhood movies Viewing on Students Psychographical attributes 10 Home Movie Content: Gender and Racial Stereotyping 23 Studies on Media Influence: An Overview 24 Theoretical Framework 28References 34CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGY 36 Research Design 36 Population of Study 36 Sample Size 38 Sampling Procedure 39 Measuring Instrument 41 Method of Data Analysis & Interpretation 41 Validity of Instrument 42 Reliability of Instrument 42References 43CHAPTER FOUR4.1Presentation of Data 444.2. Discussion and Interpretation of Findings 58CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 64 Summary 64 Conclusion 65 Recommendations 66BIBLIOGRAPHY 68QUESTIONNAIRE 70LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Respondents’ Age Distribution - - - - - 44Table 2: Gender Distribution - - - - - - 45Table 3: Marital Status - - - - - - - - 45Table 5: Showing Religious affiliation - - - - - - - 46Table 6: Showing if respondents watch nollyhood movies.- - - 46Table 7: Showing the rate of watching nollyhood movies - - 47Table 8: Showing if respondents notice the dress patterns. - - 48Table 9: Showing respondent impression of the dress patterns. - - 48Table 10: Showing what the respondent would emulate- - - 49Table 10 showing dress pattern portray in nollyhood movies. - - 50Table 11. Showing if these movies affect respondent’s type of cloth choice 51.Table 12: showing if nollyhood movies make respondent proud of African attires? 52Table 13: showing how respondent see the attires - - -- 53Table 16: showing what is responsible for the Influence - - 54Table 17 showing if nollyhood movies dress patterns celebrate African culture. 55Table 18 showing if nollyhood movies dress patterns celebrate African culture - - 56CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION: Background of study - The value of nollyhood movies as a medium of mass communication is esteemed all over the world. In Nigeria there are over one million audiences of nollyhood movies films who are affected in one way or another, by the subjects treated in Nigerian nollyhood movies. These movies portray message that have Influence on the viewers, mostly, their mode of dressing.Movies hold a very special place in the culture of a people. “Movies, like books, are a culturally special medium…an important medium of cultural transmission. (Baran, 2009:75). Studies show that movies contribute to socialization and the transmission of culture (Baran, 2009; Daramola, 2007).Research has shown that there exists a relationship between the mass media and social ills and other behavoural and attitudinal change in the society. For instance, the media are attributed considerable power to shape opinion and belief, change habits, and actively moulding behaviour and imposing political system even against resistance.In discussing the Influence of nollyhood movies on the dressing pattern of students of tertiary institutions in Abia State, it is imperative to mention discourses on media influence. This is because, nollyhood movies are a mode of media transmission. In all of researches, the area of media Influence appears to be the most contentious. For one, if the media have no Influence on the society. Is there any realistic justification for theircontinued existence? For another, if the media do have influences on the thought process and attitude of mankind, should they take responsibility for the emergent foibles and discomfitures of man in the society?The concern on media Influence has led to the development of different communication theories. This is an attempt to explain the relationship between communication messages and their Influences on the respondent.O’Rork (2006) and Wogu (2008) argue that audiences are more likely to emulate models of behavior seen on the media if they expect to receive gratification from emulating another person “… Behaviour is influenced not only by personal or live models but by those presented in the mass media”. (O’ Rork, 2006:72)Analyses on media Influence continue to show that the media have Influence on the pattern of behaviour of its audience. (Uwakwe, 2010; Okunna, 1999 and Okoye 1993).Okunna, opines that because of their special power to affect the way people think, feel and behave, the mass media have been credited with incredible persuasive ability to change attitude and behaviour (1999:161). Culturally, this media Influence could be in the area of language, behavioural response, pattern of eating and dressing.Since it has been established that film is a mass medium, it is proposed in this study that the home movie genre, which is the Nigerian local or indigenous films have Influence on the pattern of dressing of students of tertiary institutions in Abia State . This supposition is hinged on the fact that nollyhood movies have gained wide follower- ship among students of tertiary institutions in Abia State, especially the youths.The home movie genre has come a long way in Nigeria. Akpan (2002) notes that the arrival of film in Nigeria came with the colonial government that established a film unit as part of the information department. And this was inherited by Nigeria after independence and became part of the ministry of information. However, as Akpan notes further, the production of feature films in movie film format began in Nigeria in the late 1980s.Studies show that, the home movie, Living in bondage, released in 1992, set the stage for the Nigerian indigenous home movie, popularly known as Nollywood. This industry has continued to grow and explode to greater proportion such that it has pushed foreign media off the shelves of movie rental shops across Nigeria and other parts of Africa. (Uwakwe, 2010). Thus, Nollywood is the household name for Nigerian movie industry and which by definition, means Nigeria’s movie industry by Nigerian production team for the Nigerian audience.This study utilizes the theory on media Influences on pattern of behaviour and attitude change and thus examines the Influence of home movie on the dressing pattern of students of tertiary institutions in Abia State. Statement of ProblemNollyhood movies are veritable tools of mass communication, which cut across national and cultural boundaries with wide and fast distributing networks internationally. Nollyhood movies are seen as source of entertainment and education, as well as conduit for promoting Nigerian culture. Thus cultural transmission is a major role of the nollyhood movies.In the face of media imperialism by foreign media and the over shadowing of Nigeria’s cultural values and manifests, it becomes important to examine the nollyhood movies to ascertain if it is influencing the dressing pattern of these students of tertiary institution in Abia State.An examination of some of the nollyhood movies will reveal that they portray nudity while some of the movies portray costumes that reflect the rich Nigerian culture, manifest in her traditional mode of dressing. Media and cultural researchers have noted that dressing is a manifest reflection of a people’s culture.In the face of these challenges, it becomes necessary to examine how the nollyhood movies Influence the dressing pattern of students of tertiary institutions in Abia State. Such discovery is imperative since it will guide the policy makers where necessary especially if it is found that the Influence is negative and detrimental to Nigerian’s cultural objective and values. Positive Influence however, will be such that promotes pride in Nigeria’s values and seeks to retain her rich culture as against preference for western pattern of dressing and nudity or indecent dressing. Objectives of studyThis study aims at discovering the Influence of nollyhood movies on the dressing pattern of students tertiary institutions in Abia State. Its objectives include:· To examine if Nollywood movies have Influence on the dressing pattern of students in tertiary institutions in Abia State.· To determine the nature of the Influence on these students.· To find out if the Influence are positive or negative· To elucidate the factors responsible for these influences.· To explore the students’ perception of dress pattern on nollyhood movies. Research Questions· Do Nollywood movies have any Influence on students of tertiary institutions in Abia State?· What type of Influence do students have on nollyhood movies dressing pattern?· Is the Influence negative or positive?· What factors necessitate these Influences?· How do these students perceive dress pattern on nollyhood movies? Significance of StudyThis study is relevant for the following reasons:It will determine the type of Influence that nollyhood movies have on the dressing pattern of students in tertiary institutions and thus guide policy makers and regulatory agencies in providing protection against the production and exposure to movies that negate Nigeria’s cultural values.The study will provide a framework for the fight against media and cultural imperialism where it is discovered that the home movie industry is serving as a stooge.Finally, the study will be beneficial to students and mass media students because it will expose them to the theory on the Influences that could be exerted via the media. Scope of the StudyStudies on media Influence show that there are various behavioural and attitudinal Influences that could be exerted by the media- vis-à-vis nollyhood movies. However, this study restricts it self to the Influence on patterns of dressing on of students of tertiary institution in Abia State. Other behavoural or attitudinal characteristics that could subsequently be investigated on, include, nollyhood movies Influence on pattern of speech; pattern of language; pattern of love and relationship, etc. Definition of TermsNollyhood movies: This is any pre-recorded media films played and viewed by people with their movie players in their homes or movie clubs. These films are viewed with the aid of a TV set which is connected to the movie machine. They are recorded on movie tape, disc or DVD.Pattern of dressing: This is refers to the choice or type of dressing or clothing preferred by a certain group of people.Students in tertiary institutions: These are post secondary school students in polytechnics, colleges of education and universities.Influence: This is the impact some thing or someone has on something or some one else. This could be positive or negative.Tertiary Institutions: These are post secondary institutions of higher learning in Abia State.ReferencesAkpan, C. (2007). Film: Philosophy & practice. (2nd ed). Nsukka: Dexy graphics publishers.Baran, J. (2009). Introduction to mass communication: Media literacy & culture. (5th (ed): New York: McGraw Hills.Daramola, I. (2007). Relationship between mass media and society. International Journal of Communication. No 6, pg 106-120.Ikeagwu, K. (1998). Ground work of Research: Methods and Procedures. Enugu: Institute for Development Studies.O’Rorke, K. (2006). Social learning theory and mass communication. ABEA journal volume 25. November.Okoro, N. (2001). Mass communication research: Issues and methodologies.Nsukka: Ap Express publishers.Okunna, S. (1999). Introduction to mass communication. (2nd ed.). Enugu: New Generation Books.Uwakwe, O. (2010). Mass Communication Theories. In K.O. Nworgu (Ed.). Mass communication: Theory and practice. Owerri: Ultimate Books.Wogu, J. (2008). Introduction to mass communication theories. Nsukka: University of Nig. Press Ltd..