THE ROLE OF THE BROADCAST MEDIA IN THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST HIV AND AIDS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF NTA ILORIN)
The aim of this study is to ascertain the role of Broadcast media, particularly the television medium, in educating the public of human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AID) as well as caring for the HIV infected person in Kwara state Nigeria using NTA as a medium for case study. It seeks to find out whether the television has been able to really round government support for the containment of HIV/AIDS. Random selection method was adopted and questionnaires were distributed to the participant of these questionnaire were analyzed using simple frequency table and percentages. The result show that television, as a medium of mass communication has been able to raise awareness on HIV/AIDS through its various programme, which are geared towards enlightening people about HIV/AIDS or helping the infected person to live positively.
Intriguingly and curiously, it was also found that this awareness does not reflect in the attitude of people in terms of risky sexual behaviour as HIV/AIDS infection is still on the increase in the states. Thus, this paper recommends that television progrmame should explore avenues of rallying stakeholders in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vi
1.1Background of the study
1.2Statement of problem
1.3Objective of the study
1.4Significance of the study
1.7Definition of terms
1.8Assumption of terms
1.10Scope & limitation of the study
2.2The media campaign against aids
2.3Assessment of the media effect
2.4Summary of the literature review
3.7Method of data analysis
4.0 Data presentation and analysis
4.2Analysis of research
5.0 Summary, Conclusion, Implication
5.3Implication of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For broadcast media campaign on any issue to interest the public, it must not be regarded as fallacious or unsystematically prepared but rather involving messages on existing public interest to the people based on experiences, facts, beliefs, socio- economic and educational backgrounds.
Against this background, the federal government in conjunction with other countries of the world through the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to embark on massive campaigns against AIDS pandemic in the country.
The broadcast media, as part of its effort to eradicate this deadly scourge in conjunction with the federal government through the ministry of Health in 1986 established the National AIDS control Programme in response to public concerns raised of the presence of Human Immune Deficiency syndrome Virus (HIV) infestation in Nigeria.
Again, in response to the evidence and the debate on the existence if AIDS in Nigeria, the then Minister of Health, Profession Olukoye Ransom Kuti in 1987, instituted the National expert Advisory committee on AIDS (NEACA) and was charged with the responsibility of establishing whether or not AIDS exists in Nigeria . They were also mandated to advise the government as well as draw up programme, strategies and activities to prevent control of HIV infection in the country.
The report from the committee stated that “HIV and AIDS existed in Nigeria and warned that unless immediate steps were taken to prevent the spread of the diseases, the country would be faced with tremendous health problem. This necessitated the establishment of AIDS Co-coordinating units and twenty one (21) testing facilities in the various states of the federation. Training was conducted for personnel to man these centre. There were also public enlightenment activities and production of educational materials like posters, handbills, pamphlets, and books on AIDS.
In February 1989, a two weeks workshop was organized by the Federal Ministry of Health, and other Human services Organizations including states ministries of health with the technical assistance from the global programme on AIDS (GPA), World Bank and other international agencies to address the issue of AIDS in Nigeria. In March 1990, a resources mobilization meeting was convened with participation by the Federal ministry of Health, by the World Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS and other International donor agencies.
Also in march, the National AIDS Co-coordinating units had the first “All Nigerian conference on AIDS” during which the then vice President, Admiral Augustus Aikomu (LTD) launched the maiden edition on the Hand book on HIV infection and AIDS for health workers. All these efforts were aimed at affecting possible solution towards cursing the AIDS measure in Nigeria and to ensure healthier environment for the popular.
Assertions have been made that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a mere fallacy and government propaganda of scaring people from enjoying sexual relationship. Some ridiculous names have been given the acronym AIDS, such as America idea of Dissuading Sex, Animal infected diseases syndrome and so on. It has been discovered that the greater number of people infected by AIDS fall within the range of 20 – 40 years of age which is the prime age of life.
Despite this fact, the non-challenge of our masses still prevails in relation, to accept the media campaign on AIDS as a complete truth. Moreover, one should not forget that it takes a lot of courage and grief to affect change in a society.
Though this study may not go into the structure of the AIDS control Programme or the dangers inherent in AIDS, it will look at the information management and the use of media campaigns to facilities proper public understanding of programme. It will prove the degree of which the entire public have related to the AID campaign and to what extent these campaigns have helped alert the masses on the dangers of AIDS, and then make recommendations.
THE AIDS DISEASE IN NIGERIA
Human Immune virus (HIV) infection and AIDS in Nigeria was first discovered in 1984 among researchers at the National Institute for medical Research, Yaba Lagos .The first evidence of AIDS in Nigeria was reported to Health Officials by Nasidi and Heavy in 1986. According to him, the first few cases were seen in prostitutes in Lagos and former Anambra State, now Anambra and Enugu State respectively.
In September 1991, Federal Ministry of health and social services reported officially that out of 125,00 book sample screened for HIV infection nationwide, 830 were seropositive given a seroprevalance rate of about 0.66 percent and these confirmed the existence of HIV infection nationwide.
BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) started to broadcast to its dominions in 1930. By 1932, Nigeria started receiving BBC; Lagos received and disseminates those messages into homes through re-diffusion sets in the major cities of the colony.
Later in 1959, Nigeria became the first African country to operate and own a television station called Western Nigeria Television (WNT) followed by East central state broadcasting services on October 1st 1960, the former eastern Region transmitted its own radio and Television signals over the air to coincide with the attainment of Nigeria Independence.
In1962, the Northern Region Governors started its own broadcasting system, which was the most successful among the three in commercial advertising and coverage of public awareness programme. To achieve this, it started a bolster television station near Lagos so that its residents could equally switch on to the regionalization of the broadcast media. They were used as powerful political instrument for the integration of each region and cultivation of regional awareness more than national consciousness and integration. The politicians, who established this, tremendously exploited them for sectional politics.
The radio is the most effective medium of information at the grassroots level in Nigeria. The effectiveness of this medium has further been enhanced by the Organizations decentralization. The only radio network in the country is now the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria(FRCN), it has in the past embarked on the regionalizing or even localizing greater proportion of radio programming in every part of the country, this leaving the network look up to only essential national programmes. The other regionally based radio stations like Radio Television Kaduna (RTK) , Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service (WNBS), Eastern Nigerian Broadcasting Services, later known as Anambra Broadcasting Services were equally effective in meeting with the regional or local needs which they were set up to satisfy .
In the area of health campaigns which is the main fulcrum in this study, the broadcast media have played key roles in bringing awareness on health Programmes such as Immunization, Oral Retardation therapy (ORT), AIDS Polio, and Liver blindness.
Such campaigns are attributed to behavioural attitude change due to media effect. This study is meant to study the role of broadcast media in the campaign against HIV/AIDS.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Some people still regard the existence of AIDS in Nigeria as a mere fallacy. Yet, the AIDS Co-ordinate unit has proved that there is rapid emergency of AIDS infected person in Nigeria.
Therefore, the urge to identify the information efficiency of these HIV/AIDS campaigns, their acceptance and relevance to people has led to the study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study intends to discover the broadcast media most especially (NTA Ilorin) handling of health problems. It wishes to know how these campaigns either locally or nationally have restructured people’s attitude towards sexual behaviour.
It is aimed at discovering the hindrance in accepting these jingles from the broadcast media. It also intends to reveal the general out of outlook of messages and to know if the broadcast media have lived up to the expectations.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It has been noted in many parts of the country that AIDS is fast spreading, Statistics show that its infected persons are increasing on daily bases. It is very crucial to alert the entire masses of the dangers inherent in curing an infected person.
It is also necessary to reveal the extent the high rate especially among infants and its remedy for the future generation.
It is hoped therefore that the entire masses, policy makers, media practitioners, students, government officials will benefit from the study.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This following question from the corner stone of the research.
1. Do the Nigeria Television Authority Ilorin (NTA) affect the attitude of the entire masses of Ilorin toward their sexual behaviours?
2. To what extent is the NTA campaign message on AIDS helped to alert the masses on the imminent dangers of AIDS?
3. In what ways do the masses perceive the NTA campaigns against AIDS sine its inception?
4. What is the remedy for the non-challant attitude of the masses towards NTA Ilorin campaigns against AIDS?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0 : Broadcast campaigns on AIDS have changed the sexual behaviour of the entire masses.
H1 : Broadcast media on AIDS have not change the sexual behaviour of the masses.
H0 : The information efficiency of broadcast media tends to reduce the spread of AIDS on the entire masses.
1 : The information efficiency of the media does not tend to reduce the spread of AIDS on the entire masses.
H0 The campaigns of AIDS are more to scare the entire masses from causal sex.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS is an infections diseases spread by a virus, it is called syndrome, because it consists of several signs and symptoms.
HIV: Human Immune virus, (HIV) is a retrovirus; a group of virus, HIV is a retrovirus, a group of virus that is still largely known. HIV has been accepted internationally. The virus destroys genetic material and the damage is permanent.
MASS MEDIA:-It refers to the major mass communication channels. Radio, Television, Newspaper, magazines, film, Book, Telecommunication, media Training, Advertising and Public relations, news can reach to a large scatted heterogeneous society. The mass media inform and educate the masses based on the conviction that truth and reasoned judgment would emerge from conflicts of many voices on public issues.
CAMPAIGNS: It is organized series of operations in the advocacy of same cause or object.
ROLE: It is a specific task or function played by an actor, an institution or organization for the realization of particular objectives.
TELEVISION: - It is the viewing of distant objects or event by electrical transmission. It serves as the vital force of educational enrichment. Television by its nature commends more audience because it combines both vision and sound to produce a package for the viewing public. It serves as an opinion leader and agenda setter in its news commentary.
RADIO: - It is a genetic term applied to methods of signaling through space without connecting wires by means of electromagnetic waves generated by high frequency alternating currents. Radio can be used to communicate in the language of the people or project audience without any inhabitation and does not need any particular level of literacy.
BROADCASTING: - It is the sending forth of material by radio, television for reception by the public. The international telecommunication union (ITV) defines broadcasting as a radio communication services in which the transmission are intended for the direct reception of the general public.
1:8 ASSUMPTIONS:-The role of the mass media in the campaigns against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria is assumed that the broadcast media play a key role in their effort to fight HIV in Nigeria. Looking at the agenda setting theory of the mass media, which stated that the media not only inform us but also influence us as what is important to know?
1.9 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: - The scope of this study is limited to the media handling of health problems. It is also limited to the survey of the broadcast media campaigns against HIV/AIDS. This scope is based on time and financial constraints..