HAZARDS AND PROSPECTS OF JOURNALISM IN NIGERIA
To discover and appreciate the hazard (i.e. problem) and prospect of journalism in Nigeria there is the need to know the history of journalism in Nigeria. In chapter, one we are going to discuss and define journalism so as to know what it deeply means. The definition of journalism will also be looked into and examine as well. The statement of problem will also be discussed likewise the classification of journalism in Nigeria and media of journalism will also be critically observed and discussed. Functions of the press are of great importance in the field of journalism in Nigeria, this will also be discussed in chapter two. In this chapters the freedom of the press will not be left out of the discussion likewise the hazards and prospect of journalism. In chapter three, the research methodology, research design, research procedure will also be critically looked into.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi
1.0 General background 1
1.1 History of journalism 1
1.2 Objective of the study 1
1.3 Research question 1 – 2
1.4 Relevance of the study 2
1.5 Limitation of the study 2
1.6 Definition of the study 2
1.7 Definition of the study 2 – 3
2.0 Literature review 4
2.1 Journalism and journalist 4
2.2 Career opportunities for journalist 4-5
2.3 Journalism as a craft or a profession 5
2.4 Specific functions of journalist (Press) 5
2.5 Press freedom 5
2.6 Hazards in journalism 6
2.7 Ethical issues in journalism 6
2.8 A review of travails in the last decade 6-9
2.9 Economic problem 9-10
2.10 Theoretical frame work 10
2.11 Authoritarian 10
2.12 Social learning theory 10
3.0 Research methodology 11
3.1 Research question 11
3.2 Research design 11
3.3 The study population 12
3.4 Sample size 12
3.5 Sampling method 12
3.6 Method of data analysis procedure 12
4.0 Analysis of research findings 13
4.1 Presentation of data 13-14
4.2 Analysis of finding 14-15
4.3 Discussion of finding 15
5.1 Summary 16
5.2 Conclusion 16
5.3 Recommendation 16
1.0 GENERAL BACKGROUND
1.1 HISTORY OF JOURNALISM
Journalism can described as day-to-day activities or operation of gathering and
transmitting of a news or information to a large audience through a suitable media or channel. It can also be regarded as the events of the day condensed into few words, sounds or pictures to satisfy the human’s curiosity of a world that is, always interested in knowing what new (Longman dictionary 1984).
The introduction of journalism and its media are (Electronic and Print) which have a lot in reducing the rate of ignorance in the society, because from the general observation both media have been disseminating information to the general publics.
The journalists are those that practices journalism in Nigeria and other countries, the journalist are always in problem each time they disseminate the news story that against important personality, most especially the politicians.
Therefore, this research is meant to let the people and entire publics know the level at which the hazard and prospects of journalism had been existing in Nigeria.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This research of the hazards and prospects of journalism with particular reference in Nigeria.
As it has been observed that journalism has helped in the development of information in Nigeria. In the course of this research, it will help the receiving information, white-ups, presentation and gathering of fact from the society, people, communities and the individuals at large.
It will also discuss the hazards and prospects of journalism in Nigeria and career opportunity for journalists.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION.
1. Do you agree that there are hazards and prospect in journalism?
2. Do you agree that there is only two media of government namely Print and electronic media?
3. Do you agree that journalism is a craft?
4. Is it true that print media is better than electronic media?
5. Is it true that electronic media is better than the print media?
6. Is it true that some journalist takes bribe or receive brown envelop?
7. Is it true those journalists are killed, in the process of disseminating some vital information about some top government functionaries and political officials in Nigeria?
8. Is it true that journalist or reporters are partisan, when it comes to the political era?
9. Do you agree that Nigeria journalist or journalism in general is independent?
10. How far would you agree that journalist in Nigeria abide by the code of ethics.
1.4 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
It is interesting to note as Africans continue to grow politically, economically and socially. The need for well trained journalist had become of a lop priory. Therefore, the tendency toward journalism and journalist in African had diminished particularly in such countries like Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and many others. To the extent, journalists in most black African countries particularly Nigeria are now better paid and to a degree are now looked at a bunch of trained intellectuals whose roles as a communication, interpreters and purveyors of good and bad news indispensable in a rapidly growing economy such as that of Nigeria.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This project work does not discourage the journalist, but to help in journalism in Nigeria
and to find way in curbing the deviant behaviour in journalism. This research work will also disclose the bad habit of journalist; this project does not discourage a political journalist or journalist in future, but to teach them the ethics of the profession.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS.
Ewuola (2001:1) defines the term journalism as the collection and editing of materials of
current interest for presentation through news media. Journalism is concerned with giving out information to an audience on regular basis. Therefore, journalism is sharing of information ands idea using a suitable channel of communication. It is also the ability to comfort, reassure and satisfy the human frailty through the entertainment page; it is also about people getting information on what is new, interesting and passing such information to their neighours.
Journalist can be described as the intermediary between the citizen and the government, to receive and transmitting information to the people in needs. Journalist is also a person that is involved in the operation of gathering and disseminating of information through the appropriate medium.
Journalist could be referred to as a person, whose primary occupation is to gathering, writing, editing and transmitting of information or control events to the publics. He usually works for news medium. This definition leaves out many personnel involved in the mass communication such as advertising and Public Relations men and several party time contributors ranging from stringers who provide routing coverage of minor news basis into intellectuals who contribute to the culture or health page of great dallies.
Media of Journalism
As noted by Longman Dictionary (1984) says “ journalism is the collecting and editing of materials of current interest for presentation through news media”. In this view, the materials that have been collected and edited must be present through a suitable channel or medium, we have two types of media which a journalist can use to disseminate or pass across his news or idea; these are print and electronic media..