THE ROLE OF TELEVISION IN ELECTORAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF NTA UYO)
Historically, television broadcasting in Nigeria has been use as a medium of communication that seeks to enrich the life of average Nigerian by influencing positively its social, cultural, economic, political and technological thinking. It also provide news and information about national issues. Beside this, it serves as a source of entertainment. Television broadcasting promotes cultural awareness and seek to preserve Nigeria’s rich culture. Through this medium artistic and intellectual creativity are developed. There for all programmes and coverages are audience oriented and guided by the nations’s social, political, moral, cultural, scientific, education and economic goals.
In contemporary times television is use as a tool in disseminating information to the people about the electoral process. Such enlightenment are meant to educate voters and members of the society about electioneering campaigns and other issues related to it. The television is been used as an instrument by politicians to advertise themselves to the electorates. Jingles, advert placement, political debates, electoral enlightenment are all done through the television. Other political progammes such as focus Nigeria aired on AIT network, Kakaaki and democratic license are all geared towards the education and political enlightenment of the Nigerian electorates. Television broadcasting in electoral education have become inevitable in Nigeria’s political system. This is plausibly correct because political and electoral programmes have recently become the democratic watchdog of our political system, criticism, debates and discontents are all channeled through television.
To this end the role of television in electoral education cannot be over emphasized, as it remained one of the viable option towards the monitoring of our electoral system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title - - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of contents - - - - - - - - - v
Introduction - - - - - - - - - - 1
Aims and Objective - - - - - - - - 3
Scope of study - - - - - - - -
Limitation of study - - - - - - - -
Brief history of case study - - - - - -
Definition of terminology - - - - - - -
Television Message - - - - - - - - 5
Television and the Society- - - - - - - 7
Relative Importance of Television of the Society - - - 8
The role of Television (NTA Kaduna) in Political Persuasion 10
Functional responsibilities of NTA Kaduna - - -
Summary - - - - - - - - - - 18
Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - 19
Recommendation - - - - - - - - - 21
Reference - - - - - - - - - - 24
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Mass communication is defined as message directed towards a large group people using a mass medium. It involves disseminating information to a large and widely dispersed audience mass communication is made possible through the help of mass media. That is to say mass media makes mass communication a reality mass media include television, radio newspaper magazines etc.
Researchers in mass communication were interested in knowing how specific massage; channels and sources could produce changes in attitude of behaviours. This was the natural outgrowth of the way mass communication research have developed from the 1920s fueled by public fear of the media, along with anxious politicians, eager advertiser, crusading social engineers and others watching to see the massive reach of the media; “to get their message across” quickly and efficiently. Government, military and corporate funding sources played an important role in the decision of those working within the field to take the direction. The goal was to determine what kind of persuasive message could be used most effectively in mobilizations of various kind political, advertising, public health, economic, educational, military and so on.
Recent changes to the technologies of both the print and electronic media, and in particular the medium of television have already begun to fragment media audience and transform the relationship between media and the nation (masses)
Therefore the utilization of the media in mobilization and persuasion is very crucial because the broadcast media, particularly the television has become the major sources of information dissemination over the years, and also the major means and most effective tools for political persuasion in Nigeria.
The ability of television to mobilize and persuade the people to behave in a given manner and to perform certain actions has merit an effective tool for political persuasion because it can send sound and picture simultaneously to a large and widely disposal audience, and it is captivating and dramatic in nature. Television appeals to the sense of sight and sound; it is comprehensive technique and the combination of audio and visual colours and motion. It has the ability to capture the interest of most viewers. That is why government and other private bodies give much attention to it. The media (television) serves as an intermediary between the government and the people because it assists the government in getting its plans and policies across to the people and the people in return gets their response, feeling and plight back to the government.
After many years of military rule in Nigeria, democracy became a much needed endeavour and television serves as a major tools through which the people were fully information education, enlightened, mobilized and persuaded to activity participate in the decision making in the country during transition period.
Television and NTA Kaduna to a large extend help in making the people in Nigeria to get all the political awareness, and it mobilize the people to both contest election and be voted for, or to vote for a candidate of their choice as an electorate. The importance of television in order to ensure a successful transition in Nigeria cannot be under estimated. Television really plays a key role in political persuasion in Nigeria.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of this study is to stress the role or importance of television in political persuasion and outline its effectiveness in political mobilization and persuasion during transitionship and the importance television in the society and the effect and acceptability of television messages in the society in relation to other media of mass communication.
Further, the role of NTA Kaduna in Political persuasion is also emphasized in this study and the reality and credibility of television messages across great distance is clearly exposed and explained.
This study is finally designed to make government and other private bodies know the importance of the media and particularly the television, in political awareness, mobilization and persuasion.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
What instigated the study the role of television in political persuasion is due to the inability of people to get full information concerning the political situation of the country, secondly the behavioural pattern of most of the Nigeria society towards the acceptance of television among other media as a means for information dissemination is one among the major factors affecting the efficiency of the use of television as a tool for political persuasion; if the societies in Nigeria will embrace the use of television as a means of information, the effect on political persuasion will be notice through the acceptance
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work is centered on the role of television in political persuasion with NTA kaduna as a case study. It is worth knowing that since anything that is media related is usually broad and cannot be discussed in isolation, other facts about the role and importance of the media (television) world also sufficed in the course of writing the term paper.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
The limitation encountered in the course of this study is not encountered to the fact that the relevant information and documents required were not provided by the media organization because of the confidentiality of such information to the media organization.
This research work is also in intended for many broadcast media, but due to time factor and financial constraint, it was limited to NTA Kaduna
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of immense benefit to the federal government of Nigeria, the political parties in Nigeria, the Nigeria television authority and the also the research students that wishes to carryout similar research on the above topic
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Do people watch television programmes and as well believed in television message?
2. Information dissemination is the hallmark of all it activitiesas far as the media (television) concerned, true/false?
3. People can be informed, educated, entertain, enlighten, and political mobilize or persuaded through the use of television, Yes/No?
4. How does television serve as reputable avenue for political persuasion?
5. The role of television in political persuasion has increased overtime in Nigeria, True/false?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: television serves does not as reputable avenue for political persuasion
Hi: television serves as reputable avenue for political persuasion
1.8 BRIEF HISTORY OF CASE STUDY
The Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna is an off shoot of the former broadcasting company of Northern Nigeria Kaduna (BCNN) which was established in March, 1962. it was originally established as a Radio and Television Broadcasting corporation from which its former name of Radio Television Kaduna came about. The station has been subjected to various changes by the succeeding governments.
Nigeria television Authority (NTA) Kaduna was excised from the former Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN), which was established by decree No 21 of 31st March 1962, the decree took effect from April 1st 1976.
The station has 10 kilometer each cover to down south of Kaduna, Malumfashi in Katsina state and part of Kano State.
The transmitter operates on 4 bands 1 VHF, transmitter which is situated at No 99, IsahKaita Road Kaduna, and was commission in 1993 and covers up to Kafanchan, Saminaka and BirninGwari. The transmitter could be said to cover three quarter of the land area of Kaduna.
In April, 1976, the former Federal Military Government took the television aspect of Radio Television Kaduna and Made it to be on its own which is the present Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna, and the Radio aspect was called Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Kaduna.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMINOLOGIES
The terminologies to be defined constitute the title of this term paper. The Title is the Role of Television in Political Persuasion. The terminologies could therefore be defined as follows:
⦁ ROLE: The Advance learners dictionary define roles as a function that a person or thing typically has or is expected to have.
⦁ TELEVISION: The Webster dictionary defines television as the exact and continuous transmission of visual image, still or in motion but without permanent recording. For instantaneous viewing at a distance; effected by a combine optical and electrical system for converting waves into corresponding electrical impulses, which are converted into their visual form in a receiving set.
⦁ POLITICAL: The Webster dictionary defines the word “political” as anything pertaining to public policy concerned in the administration of government.
⦁ MOBILIZATION: This is the art of making people to behave in a given manner and to perform certain actions.
This research work is centered on the Role of Television in Political Persuasion, with a Case study of NTA Kaduna.
The researcher was able to review various research work done by mass communication scholars on mass media and television broadcastings. This makes it possible for the researcher to gather the necessary information needed in ascertaining the research hypothesis.
From the findings most of the people affirmed that the people watch television programmes and as well believe in television message. The scholars were also able to gather that as far as the media (television) concerned information dissemination is the hallmark of all it activities. The message, which serves as the content of information, gets to the people through a medium of communication and prior to this fact there has to be a message before communication takes place.
In addition to the finding, it was discovered that television messages are very effective and it is a means through which the people can be informed, educated, entertain, enlighten, and political mobilize or persuaded. The scholar have their respondents concurring with the fact that television serves as reputable avenue for political persuasion.
It is obvious from the research conducted that viewers of television programmes are all interesting programme. These programmes of which some are political in nature, provide a sense of political attachment entertainment as well as promotion of people cultural affiliation as oppose to cultural alienation from foreign programme.
After and findings (the research findings) by the research and after reviewing the various research work done by mass communication scholar on mass media particularly television broadcast the researcher found out that many people watch television programmes and believe in television message and also have access to television message and also have access to television set. This draws the researcher to a conclusion that the media and particularly television messages serves as effective means of political persuasion and will remain the best means for political awareness mobilization and persuasion in Nigeria.
The finding of this research work has proved that media message particularly television message are well believed and very effective.
In view of this, the media organization in the country and especially NTA Kaduna should try as much as possible to air aid the good of the society and any programmes that would aid the good of the society and any programme that would promote social disorder and moral decadence should be avoided.
Both the government owned television stations and the private owned television station should take note of this.
Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna and other broadcast media in Nigeria should try and extend their services to every part of Nigeria especially the rural areas. This would not only help to educate and enlighten the people politically and otherwise, but also enhance rapid development in all ramifications.
All broadcast stations should give due respect to objectives and factual presentation of programmes and report only. The facts so as to gain confidence and maintain good standard.
It would be important id the broadcasting stations would create a forum for feedback where viewer would ask questions as record their programmes.
Modern machinery should be acquired for the television stations in the country in order to meet up with competition and technological advancement in broadcasting industry.
It would be better if all broadcast media or stations are provided with uninterrupted power supply unit to avoid loss of important informations in the event of power failure..