DETERMINATION OF THE INHIBITION EFFICIENCY OF LASIENTHERA AFRICANUM AS A NATURAL CORROSION INHIBITOR

  DETERMINATION OF THE INHIBITION EFFICIENCY OF LASIENTHERA AFRICANUM AS A NATURAL CORROSION INHIBITOR

CHAPTER ONE  

1.0 INTRODUCTION  

Corrosion is a serious problem in this modern age of technological advancement. This accountsfor a lot of economic losses and irreversible structural damage. The cost of corrosion failuresannually for any nation is difficult to estimate per annum, but it has been stated that the wastageof material resources by corrosion ranks third after war and disease (Olugbenga et al.2011).Efforts have been made to restrain the destructive effects of corrosion using several preventivemeasures (Loto et al. 1989, Popoola et al.2011 and Davis et al. 2001). The effects of corrosion inour daily lives can be direct by affecting the useful service lives of our possessions, and indirect,in that producers and suppliers of goods and services incur corrosion costs, which they pass on toconsumers. At home, corrosion is readily recognized on automobile body panels, charcoal grills,outdoor furniture, and metal tools (Denny et al. 1996). The corrosion of steel reinforcing bars inconcrete usually proceeds out of sight and suddenly results in failure of a section of bridges orbuildings.Virtually all metals will corrode to some extent; the fossil–fuel boilers and fossil-fuel fired powergenerators equipment experience corrosion problems in such component as steam generator andwater walls surrounding the furnace (Natarajanf & Sivan, 2003). Perhaps most dangerous of allis corrosion that occurs in major industrial plants, such as electrical power plants or chemicalHowever, the consequences of corrosion are economic and could lead to: Replacement of corroded equipment. Overdesign to allow for corrosion. Preventive maintenance, for example, painting. Shutdown of equipment due to corrosion failure. Contamination of a product. Loss of efficiency—such as when overdesign and corrosion products decrease the heattransferrate in heat exchangers. Loss of valuable product, for example, from a container that has corroded through. Inability to use otherwise desirable materials. Damage of equipment adjacent to that in which corrosion failure occurs.Corrosion affects most of the industrial sector and may cost billions of dollars each year forprevention and replacement maintenance. Thus, the modern world has made investigations to2overcome this problem by conducting enrichment studies of corrosion inhibitors. Corrosioninhibitors will reduce the rate of either anodic oxidation or cathodic reduction or both. This willgive us anodic, cathodic or a mixed type of inhibition. In an attempt to find corrosion inhibitorsthat are environmentally safe and readily available, there has been a growing trend in the use ofbiological substrate such as leaves or plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for metals in acidcleaning processes.As a result of increasing awareness on environmentally friendly practices for sustainabledevelopment, the demand for non-toxic inhibitors to replace toxic ones has increasedtremendously. Thus, in recent years, several plant extracts have been investigated for theinhibition of acid corrosion of metals. This is because plants contain naturally synthesizedchemical compounds that are biodegradable, environmentally acceptable, inexpensive, readilyavailable and renewable source of materials.Corrosion is not only dangerous, but also costly, with annual damages in the billions of dollars!If this is difficult to believe, consider some of the direct and indirect effects of corrosion whichcontribute to these costs:Not only that the economic costs are frightening, there is also potential loss of life and damage tothe environment problems, which can have widespread effects upon modern industrialbusinesses. It is essential, therefore, for operators of industrial process plants to have a programfor controlling corrosion.1.1 Literature ReviewCorrosion may be defined as a destructive phenomenon, chemical or electrochemical, which canattack any metal or alloy through reaction by the surrounding environment and in extreme casesmay cause structural failure. The corrosion occurs because of the natural tendency for mostmetals to return to their natural state (reverse of metallurgy); e.g., iron in the presence of moistair will revert to its natural state, iron oxide.Corrosion could be basically carried by water intrusion and some environmental factors.Water intrusion is the principal cause of corrosion problems encountered in the field use ofequipment. Water can enter an enclosure by free entry, capillary action, or condensation. Withthese three modes of water entry acting and with the subsequent confinement of water, it isalmost certain that any enclosure will be susceptible to water intrusion. At normal atmospherictemperatures the moisture in the air is enough to start corrosive action. Oxygen is essential for3corrosion to occur in water at ambient temperatures. Other factors that affect the tendency of ametal to corrode are acidity or alkalinity of the conductive medium (pH factor), stability of thecorrosion products, biological organisms (particularly anaerobic bacteria), Variation incomposition of the corrosive medium and temperature.1.2 Mechanism of CorrosionIn nature, metals are not found in Free State due to their reactivity. Metals are generally in highenergy state because some energy is added during their manufacturing process from the ores.Low energy - state ores are more stable than the high energy – state metals. As a result of thisuphill thermodynamic struggle, the metals have a strong driving force to release energy and goback to their original form. Hence the metals revert to their parent state or ore under a suitablecorrosive environment. The electrochemical process involved in corrosion by nature is oppositeto the extractive metallurgy involved in manufacturing of the metals. Therefore, corrosion issometimes considered as the reverse process of extractive metallurgy as can be seen below

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How To Write Chapter Three Of Your Research Project (Research Methodology)

  • Methodology In Research Paper


    Chapter three of the research project or the research methodology is another significant part of the research project writing. In developing the chapter three of the research project, you state the purpose of research, research method you wish to adopt, the instruments to be used, where you will collect your data, types of data collection, and how you collected it.

    This chapter explains the different methods to be used in the research project. Here you mention the procedures and strategies you will employ in the study such as research design, study design in research, research area (area of the study), the population of the study, etc. You also tell the reader your research design methods, why you chose a particular method, method of analysis, how you planned to analyze your data.

    Your methodology should be written in a simple language such that other researchers can follow the method and arrive at the same conclusion or findings.

    You can choose a survey design when you want to survey a particular location or behavior by administering instruments such as structured questionnaires, interviews, or experimental; if you intend manipulating some variables.

    The purpose of chapter three (research methodology) is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some supervisors do not understand this and require students to write what is in effect, a textbook.

    A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter three should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of research. It is very important that before choosing design methods try and ask yourself the following questions: Will I generate enough information that will help me to solve the research problem by adopting this method?

    Method vs Methodology

    I think the most appropriate in methods versus methodology is to think in terms of their inter-connectedness and relationship between both. You should not beging thinking so much about research methods without thinking of developing a research methodology.

    Metodologia or methodology is the consideration of your research objectives and the most effective method and approach to meet those objectives. That is to say that methodology in research paper is the first step in planning a research project work.

    Design Methodology: Methodological Approach

    Example of methodology in research paper, you are attempting to identify the influence of personality on a road accident, you may wish to look at different personality types, you may also look at accident records from the FRSC, you may also wish to look at the personality of drivers that are accident victims, once you adopt this method, you are already doing a survey, and that becomes your metodologia or methodology.

    Your methodology should aim to provide you with the information to allow you to come to some conclusions about the personalities that are susceptible to a road accident or those personality types that are likely to have a road accident.

    The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible in metodologia or methodology chapter.

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