IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYERS PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)
This research project is prompted by the need for training and development in the Banking Industry which is often neglected by most organizations. This neglect has led to waste and unnecessary cost centers become necessary to embark on the study so as to highlight its importance in present day work force. As it were, any organization that wants to be dynamics has to move with time by developing and training its personnel, otherwise, it will be ready to be price out of market.
The work further tried to deal with the historical perspective of Union Bank of Nigeria. It also tries to focus on the theoretical frame work of the study.
Moreso, it also focuses on the analysis of the research questions, hypothesis which claims that training and development plays a vital role in improving the skills, knowledge and productivity of employee. That actual performance can be influenced by actual value rewards.
After looking at these aspects, a general conclusion and recommendations will be made for further improvement in organization as a whole and Union Bank of Nigeria Pic in particular. It is hoped that the recommendations will be of help for further human resources development growth in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the Study
1.3 Statements of the Problems
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Significant of Study
1.7 Historical Background
2.1 Manpower training and development concept
2.2 Types of training programme
2.2.1 Induction method
2.2.2 Public vocational school training
2.2.3 On the job training
2.2.4 Information presentation method
2.2.5 Simulation approach
2.2.6 Professional training
2.2.7 Vestibule training
2.2.8 Apprenticeship Programmes/Training
2.2.9 Correspond Courses
2.3 Methods of Manpower Development
2.3.1 Experience on the Job
2.3.2 Formal Education
2.4 Benefits of Training and Development
2.4.1 To the Employees
2.4.2 To the Employers
2.4.3 To the Society
2.5 Determining Training and Development Needs
2.5.1 The Assessment Phase
2.5.2 Implementing Training and Development Programme
2.5.3 Evaluating of training and Development Programme
3.3 Method of Study
3.3.2 Secondary Information
3.3.3 Personal Interview and Observation
3.3.4 Methods of Data Analysis
3.5 Limitation of the Methodology
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT FINDINGS
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Problems Encountered in Data Collection
4.3 The Sample Characteristics
4.4 Hypothesis Testing
4.4.1 Hypothesis One
4.4.2 Hypothesis Two
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Management of human resources is crucial to the growth and survival of any organization particularly those of the 21st Century who encounter on regular basis unhealthy rivalry in the global market BANKOLE. (2001).
Any organization that will stand the test of time in the highly competitive environments must necessarily adopt a realistic human resources system, planning and utilization as well as positive training and development on performance that could motivate and carry along the entire workforce in the effort towards attaining the organizational goals and objectives hence the need for training and development for all categories of employees in organization Is widely recognized be it at the management trainee level, supervisory level and senior management level.
Training relates to giving knowledge and skills, transmission of information to familiarize employees and employers· to the organizational and environmental context and to modify their attitudes in task performance while development follows the same pattern but It is designed for senior employees who are in managerial positions and if any organization thinks that training and development is expensive and equivocal, let try ignorance. Training and development is Inevitable in all organizations; but the current trends of events In Banking Sector, like old age· it attacks us whether we like It or not. People learn to behave in a particular way In the family, in social gathering and In their working places.
Training and development is one aspect of activity that is virtually important and continuous until death. Training is all learning experience and has become an integral unquestionable aspect of improvement, effective and development. In this era of organizational complexity, industrial sophistication and technological advancement, training is no longer the job of an amateur or unprepared professional. It has really come and it is going a long way.
Styles et al (1997) stated that effectively an organization depends on how well its members are trained. Training motivates employees to work harder and have higher morale and it is an ongoing process. New problems, new procedures and equipment, new knowledge and job call for training.
To train and develop labour is the key to containing the current changes in technology and organizations and will base its control and effectiveness on the growth and accomplishment of persons within the organization. Training is an investment and adds to working capital. Efficiency and effectiveness of organization are predicated of its manpower and its major resources of organizational differences.
Training according to Ogundiro (1992) is the acquisition of a requite knowledge, skills and attitude for a requisite or specific job. "Whereas development is the systemic acquisition of knowledge. Skills and attitude by an employee, which helps him carry out his present job competently and make him ready for future tasks.
The easiest way to define these words is perhaps to make comparison between them. First, the purpose of training is to supply specific knowledge, skill and attitude (KSA) needed to meet organizational goals, while the purpose for management development is to supply individuals prepared to meet organizational goals in specific positions.
Secondly, the scope of training deals with specific tasks, training individuals for an area of responsibility. Malcon W. Warren (1978) defined development, through the problem approach. In training problem arise from sub-standard conditions or the absence of desired conditions eased by individual or groups. As for the management development, the problem concerns reinforcing employees to present knowledge, skill or attitude.
Another point that clearly differentiates training from management development is selection. For training, participants are chosen because past performance demonstrated better potentials for new responsibilities.
Manpower development according to Paul Pigor (1973) organization planning, manpower planning and forecasting are parts of the process of management development but not the essence of it. Management development occurs in every organization in some way, as such subordinates learn from the respond to the example of their supervisors and try to improve their own performance on the job.
The organizational climate established by top management, including the personal concepts which they hold, is the single most important influence on the development of subordinate managers at all levels. However, it is not all people in management that wants to get ahead, some are satisfied with their present status and income level rather than taking added responsibilities. For those who aspire for higher managerial heights in the organization, they will want to have opportunities to develop themselves within the organization or seek better and more Challenging opportunities as they grow in their present positions. But if the superior discourage such reporting and fails to communicate the reasons effectively, young managers often lean on greener pastures.
In summary two principal components of effective management development are:-
(1) An organizational climate. Including advanced organizational and Manpower development planning conductive for managerial self development.
(2) An appraisal of employee performance and various opportunities for further managerial development.
Training and development had become increasingly importance over the years, decades and centuries, subject to the role they play in the survival and effectiveness of organizations and also due to the existing gap in qualified “Manpower" previously predicted in the National Development Plan.
In fact it is to this end that government established among other agencies the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) by Degree No. 47 of 8th October, 1971 to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce with a view to generating a poll of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the need of the economy.
The growing concern of government in training and manpower development has served to increase the awareness of both the public and private sectors. For human resources in general and training and manpower development In particular is a managerial responsibility and should be given priority just like the other resources. In line with this, many companies are seen embarking on the training and development of their manpower. They spend a lot of money yearly to organize and conduct variety of programmes both within and outside the country. This is so because organization operates within environment that can either promote or hamper the achievement of the objectives for which they exist.
Business environment can be divided into two:
The Internal and External Environments.
The Internal Environment can be a large extent be controlled by management, while the External Environment on the other hand is usually difficult to control by organization due to its elements which are political, economical, social and technological dimensions affect the ability of the organization to operate optimally. The rate of growth and development of any economy largely influences development in other spheres of national to life.
Formal organizations are set up to achieve certain goals objectives through the utilization of available. The achievement of these goals and objectives will depend largely on the organization's effectiveness and efficiency of its services to its final consumers. Most especially now that the numbers of organization in Nigeria are increasing, the capabilities, effectiveness and efficiency of any organization is measured through its productivity and whether such organization is able to withstand the test of time.
The Banking Industry is faced with a constantly changing environment for it to continuously survive, it has to adapt to the Changing environment and one of the ways by which organization adopt to meet with the changing nature of its environment is through continuous training and development of its key personnel.
Training and development have become universally accepted as vital input to improve the output of administration both quantitatively and qualitatively. With training, employee's skills, abilities and attitude relevant to effectively performance on the job are increased.
Development of employees on the other hand includes training to acquire skill in performing a specific assignment and education to increase general knowledge and understanding of our environment.
A well planned development programmes for all staff return positively to the organization in terms of increased productivity, heightened morale, reduce cost and greater organizational stability and flexibility to adapt to changing external requirements. It is important to note that such development programmes will also help to meet needs of individuals in their search for assignments that can add up to little life long career.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The scope of banking services becomes very competitive in recent times. This is as a result of the introduction of computer and professionalism into the banking system. To adapt to this technological level, banking industry has found itself, training and development of staff as a fundamental tool to withstand the test of time. It should be noted that the introduction of better remuneration and other incentives by competing banks make people who have experience move from one bank to another. This process leaves some bank with in-experienced staff that needs to be trained to meet with modern banking practice.
Further, there is this tendency for staff to participate in some training programmes without evaluating why. Most especially where individual sponsor their participants in some courses, obtain certificates while the contents of such courses may not be of relevance to the productivity of the industry he intend to use such certificates.
Moreso, there is this problem of wasting resources on training programmes which have little or no relevance to the development and productivity of the organization. These and many other problems are some of the problem encountered in the development of human resources in this industry.
It is the aim of this research however to arrest and make vital contribution to solving some of the problems of human resources training and development on performance of staff in a working environment.
However, the study will provide solution to these under listed problems.
1) The problems of determining who, when, where and how training and development programmes are chosen and implemented.
2) The means by which the organization identifies the training need in every employee sent for training and the problem of deciding the appropriate method of training will also be addressed.
3) The workers performance shall be evaluated in Union Bank Pic viz-a-via.
4) Determining how training and development can increase performance.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study will focus on the following areas:-
i. To know lucidly what training and development programmes is all about.
ii. To determine how training and development programmes could bring about productivity in the organization.
iii. To prove that a well designed and executed training and development programme could produce a result oriented banking practices.
iv. To highlight various impediments against effective training and development programmes.
v. Lastly, to suggest ways of achieving an effective training and development programmes so as to achieve the desired positive change.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions will be addressed in the study:-
I. Can training and development programmes play a vital role in improving the skills, knowledge and productivity of employee?
II. Can actual performance be influenced by actual value of reward?
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is aimed at making theoretical and practical contribution to the effective utilization of training and development in the work place with a view to increase productivity.
However, the study intends to address those areas that are presently being neglected or not adequately covered with a view to alerting the authorities concerned so as to address more seriously on those areas. The study will also try to serve as a reference point and a ground for academic research.
1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Union Bank of Nigeria Plc is one of the biggest and leading Commercial Banks in Nigeria. The Bank was authorized by the Banking Act of 1916. It opened for business in 1917 with the first branch in Lagos then Jos and Port-Harcourt. The maiden name of the Bank was Colonial Bank. In 1925, Barclay Bank, Dominion Colonial and Oversea was aim to take over the activities of the colonial bank. In 1950 the Bank name was shortened to Barclays Bank (D.C.O.). This period marked the commencement of expansion and opening of more new branches.
In 1969, the Bank was legally incorporated in Nigeria as a wholly owned subsidiary of Barclays Bank International Limited of London and renamed Barclays Bank of Nigeria Limited. In 1971, 8.33% of the Bank's share was offered for sale to Nigeria citizens and association and share were listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange.
The Nigeria Enterprises promotion Decrees of 1972 and 1978 put legal backing to the Government Indigenization policy and the Federal Government eventually acquired 51.67% of the bank's share. Following the reduction of Barclays Bank share to 40% the bank's name was changed to Union Bank of Nigeria Limited to reflect the image and new ownership structure. In 1979, Barclays Bank share was further reduced to 20% to make it the only former expatriate Bank with the largest proportion of its share owner by Nigeria and Nigerian Organizations.
On May 1989, the 20s equity share held by Barclays in Union Bank of Nigeria Limited was diverted and sold to the Nigeria Public. Today, the total asset hold of Union Bank is more than N80 Billion. Union Bank of Nigeria (PLC) was the first Nigeria Bank to hit the N1 Billion mark in its saving deposits. It has over 270 rural and urban branches all over Nigeria with a full-pledge branch in London. 40 of those branches are located in Lagos.
MAIN FUNCTION OF UNION BANK
Union Bank of Nigeria (PLC) controls a large proportion of the country's function transaction. To this end; it involves itself in major activities which include provision of full range or normal commercial banking services.
The Bank's role in the banking sector is to continue to create a liberal, popular and positive image in order to get increased patronage from the government, corporate organizations and more importantly, big and small personal savers.
Other services also include opening of domiciliary foreign currency accounts and management of foreign exchange escrow accounts from its London Branch. It also undertakes shares registration, corporate banking, business advisory services, national economic reconstruction fund (NERFUND) and the World bank assisted small and medium enterprises (SME) loan scheme established to provide long term finance for small and medium-scale industries and agro-allied enterprises.
The Bank now places special emphasis on agricultural and manufacturing sectors and there is a deliberate strategy towards indigenous depositors and small industrialists. The Bank also has two products namely: Credits Cards Branded.
(2) SAYE means Save As You Earn.
Apart from the branches of the banks that spread over the country, the bank has the following department and units, each with special duties to perform:
(i) Operation Department (Coordinates and controls the activities of branch network throughout the country and also involve in general administration).
(ii) Staff department
(iii) Chief Accountant's department
(iv) Corporate Banking Department
(v) Agricultural Credit Department
(vi) Debit Recovery Department
(vii) Computer Services Department
(viii) International Banking Department
(ix) Inspection Department
(x) Legal Department
(xi) Registrars Department
The functions of each department or unit as the case may be are very much in consonance with their tags such as Staff department which takes care of personnel, recruitment, industrial relations and allied activities.
Another important activity of the bank is staff welfare. In this regard, Union Bank continues to provide modern working environment its staff. A housing estate at Satellite Town in Lagos is provided housing estate at Ipaja. Other activities are: Home Ownership Scheme, Health and General Social Welfare Facilities, Long Service Award, Non-Contributory Pension Scheme and Modern Recreational Facilities at the Bank Sport's Club at Surulere, Lagos. These are part of the activities of the Bank to motivate the staff.
The Bank also provides facilities for the feeding of all the workers for each working day. This is for the moment is limited to lunch alone, and is being paid for by the issue of luncheon vouchers to each worker according to his/her category.
The Bank organizes on-the-job and off-the job training programme for its staff so as to improve their proficiency on the job make them adapt to the dynamic changing environment. This is hoped to help them face the challenges caused by modern banking practice. Nevertheless, the bank has its Training Centre at Yaba and its Human Resources Office at Victoria Island to enable it improves on its past glory and consolidates on its name; BIG-STRONG-RELIABLE.