MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL SERVICE SECTORS


MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL SERVICE SECTORS                                                                                       ABSTRACTThis study was conducted at the NBC Limited in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The general objective was to investigate the impact of a modern technology to the performance of financial services sector. Specifically it aimed at determining the relationships between the adoption of modern ICT and organization’s performance,the second objective was to study the current strategic roles of organization’s managements that are used to enhance an optimum utilization of the modern ICT.Last the study aimed at exploring the challenges facing Organization’s management in implementing the modern ICT concept.The study was mainly descriptive and cross – sectional. It was conducted using a case study technique by collecting primary data at the NBC Dar es Salaam using questionnaires. It involved a sample of 40 respondents The findings found that there exists a relationship between the adoption of modern technology and the performance of the organizations. The study also indicated the strategies used by the organization to ensure optimum utilization of technology through introducing online banking services and the use of ATMs.Not only had that but the findings also indicated the challenges faced by Organizations’ when implementing ICT.The researcher recommends that the adoption of a modern technology by work organizations have a significant role in influencing the organizations’ performance, thus the managements of organizations should maintain a state of innovation in order to attain a competitive scope in adopting and implementing modern technology for the benefit of the organization and other stakeholders. It is also recommended that Organizations should stress on the strategies that enhance optimum utilization of ICT and increase the motives for the utilization of the same.Last the researcher recommends that organization should find ways to tackle the challenges they face when implementing modern technology.TABLE OF CONTENTSContent                                            PageTitle page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iApproval    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iiDedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iiiAcknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    ivAbstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    vCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.1     Background to the Study…………………………………………………1.2     Research Problem………………………………………………………1.3     Research Objectives………………………………………………………1.4    Research question…………………………………………………………1.5     Significance of the study…………………………………………………1.6     Scope of the study ……………………………………………………… 1.7         Limitation of the study…………………………………………………CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1    Introduction…………………………………………………………….2.2     Theoretical Literature Review………………………………………….2.2.1    Definition of Key Concept……………………………………………..2.2.2     Basic Motivation Theories……………………………………………..2.3     Empirical Literature Review……………………………………………2.3.1     ICT and its Specific Competitive Factors……………………………..2.3.2     The Management Information Systems and ICT Context………………2.3.3    Globalization Context and the Modern ICT ……………………………2.3.4    ICT and Organizations’ Cultural Perspectives………………………….2.3.5    The Modern ICT and Organization Performance Context……………..2.3.6     The Concept of ICT Change Strategies…………………………………2.3.7     Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………2.3.8     The Rationale for Selecting an Organization’s Performance Improvement Model…………………CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1     Introduction…………………………………………………………….3.2     Research Paradigm………………………………………………………3.2.1    Positivism Paradigm………………………………………………………3.3     Research Design…………………………………………………………3.3.1     Research Approach………………………………………………………3.4     Area of Study……………………………………………………………3.5     Sampling Procedure………………………………………………………3.6     Study Population……………………………………………………….3.7     The Sampling Frame……………………………………………………3.8     Sampling Procedure………………………………………………………3.9     Sample Size…………………………………………………………….3.10     Research Variables………………………………………………………3.11     Data Collection Techniques………………………………………………3.12     Data Analysis……………………………………………………………..CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH DATA4.1     Introduction………………………………………………………………4.2     Characteristics of the respondents………………………………………4.2.1     Gender of respondents………………………………………………….4.2.2     Education of the respondents……………………………………………4.2.3     Age profile of the respondents………………….…………………...……4.3     Findings of the research questions………..………………………………4.3.1     The assessment of the relationship between adoption of modern ICT and organization performance……………4.3.1.1     Customer orientation vs. performance………………………………….4.3.1.2     Impact of technology on revenue growth………………………………4.3.1.3     Assessment of how modern technology can help to control queue……4.3.1.4     Assessment of the improvement of work process though adoption of modern technology…………4.3.1.5     Assessment of the relationship between the working hours and the adoptions of modern technology………4.3.2     Strategies for Optimum Utilization of the Modern ICT…………………4.3.2.1    Assessment of how ATMs ensure optimum utilization of modern technology........4.3.2.2    Assessment of how research and development ensure optimum utilization of modern technology……………4.3.2.3     Assessment on how corporate downsizing can enhance optimum utilization of modern technology…4.3.2.4     The assessment of how employee training and development ensures optimum utilization of modern technology…4.3.2.5     Assessment of how customer training enhances optimum utilization of modern technology…………………….……4.3.2.6     The usefulness of computers uses in enhancing utilization of modern ICT...........................4.3.2.7    Assessment of the relation between qualification of employee and adoption of modern ICT……………………………4.3.3     Challenges in Implementing the Modern ICT Concept…………………..4.3.3.1   How political factor can be a challenge in implanting modern ICT………4.3.3.2     Technological dynamics as a challenge in implementing modern technology………………………………4.3.3.3     Social cultural factor as a challenge in implementing modern technology……………………………………4.3.3.4     Legal factor as a challenge in implementation of modern ICT...................4.3.3.5     Competition as a challenge in implanting modern ICT…………………4.3.3.6    Human resource diversity as challenge when implementing modern ICT……………………CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS5.1    Discussion  of research findings on Impact of modern  technology to               the performance of financial service sector   …………………………5.1.1    Discussion of research findings on Impact of technology on revenue growth…………………5.1.2     Discussion of research findings on how modern technology can help to control queue…5.1.3    Discussion of research findings on Strategies for Optimum Utilization of the Modern ICT……………5.1.4     Discussion of research findings on Challenges in Implementing the Modern ICT Concept………………….. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION6.1    Introduction………………………………………………………………6.2     Summary………………………………………………………………6.3     Conclusion………………………………………………………………6.4     Recommendations………………………………………………………6.4.1    Relation between the use of modern technology and organization performance………………………6.4.2     Strategies for optimum utilization of Modern ICT……………………..6.4.3     Challenges facing organization management in implementing the modern ICT……………………………6.5     Suggestions for the dissertation in Future Research ……………………..References………………………………………………………………………..LIST OF TABLES    Table 3.1:     Criteria for Selection of Research Paradigms and Research Methods……………………………………………………Table: 3.2:     Research Sample Selection Criteria…………………………Table 3.3:     Research Variable Names and Classifications………………Table 4.1:     Gender of Respondents…………………………………….Table 4.2:    Education level of respondents………………………………Table 4.3:     Age profile of respondents…………………………………Table 4.4:    Customers Orientation………………………………………Table 4.5:     Revenue growth…………………………………………….Table 4.6:     Controlled queue……………………………………………..Table 4.7:     Work process………………………………………………..Table 4.8:     Working hours………………………………………………Table 4.9:     Automated Teller Machines uses…………………………..Table 4.10:    Research and Development concept……………………….Table 4.11:    Corporate downsizing……………………………………….Table 4.12:     Employees Training and development……………………..Table 4.13:     Customers’ training…………………………………………Table 4.14:     Computer uses ………………………………………………Table 4.15:     Qualifications of employees………………………………..Table 4.16:    Political Factor………………………………………………Table 4.17:     Technological dynamics…………………………………….Table 4.18:     Social Cultural Factors……………………………………..Table 4.19:     Legal Factors………………………………………………..Table 4.20:     Competition…………………………………………………Table 4.21:     Human resources diversity………………………………….    CHAPTER ONEAN OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY1.1INTRODUCTION:This chapter provides detailed information related to the introduction of the study. It covers such variables as background of the study, research problem and research question. Other aspects included research objectives, research variables, limitation of the study as well as significance of the study.1.2 Background to the StudyThe introduction of computing and specifically Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) into the workplace is one of the most significant and dramatic changes in the realm of office work to be witnessed in recent years (Wiese, 2001). Today’s business environment is very dynamic and undergoes rapid changes as a result of technological innovation, increased awareness and demands from customers. Business organisations, especially the banking industry of the 21st century operates in a complex and competitive environment characterized by these changing conditions and highly unpredictable economic climate. The business impacts of information technology (IT), deregulation and globalisation on the structure and profitability of the international banking industry is being observed. Information technology creates new opportunities for the banks in the way they organize product development, delivery and marketing. However IT also allows other financial and even non-financial organisations to start offering bank services. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the centre of this global change curve. Laudon and Laudon, (1991) contend that managers cannot ignore Information Systems because they play a critical role in contemporary organisations. They point out that the entire cash flow of most fortune500 companies is linked to Information System. The usage of information technology (IT), broadly referring to computers and peripheral equipment, has seen tremendous growth in service industries in the recent past.  The most obvious  example  is perhaps  the banking  industry, where  through the introduction of IT related  products in internet banking,  electronic payments, security  investments, information exchanges  (Berger,  2003), banks  now can provide  more diverse  services to customers  with less manpower. The application of information and communication technology concepts, techniques, policies and implementation strategies to banking services has become a subject of fundamental importance and concerns to all banks and indeed a prerequisite for local and global competitiveness. ICT directly affects how managers decide, how they plan and what products and services are offered in the banking industry. It has continued to change the way banks and their corporate relationships are organized worldwide and the variety of innovative devices available to enhance the speed and quality of service delivery. Harold and Jeff (1995) contend that financial service providers should modify their traditional operating practices to remain viable in the 1990s and the decades that follow. The adoption of ICT in banks has improved customer services, facilitated accurate records, provides for Home and Office Banking services, ensures convenient business hour, prompt and fair attention, and enhances faster services. The adoption of ICT improves the banks’ image and leads to a wider, faster and more efficient market. It has also made work easier and more interesting, improves the competitive edge of banks, improves relationship with customers and assists in solving basic operational and planning problems. (DeYoung, Robert 2007) In general, existing studies have concluded positive effects regarding the relation between ICT and banks’ performance. First, ICT can reduce banks’ operational costs (the cost advantage).  For example, internet helps banks to conduct standardized, low value-added transactions (e.g.   bill payments, balance  inquiries,  account transfer) through the online channel,  while focusing their  resources  into specialized,  high-value  added  transactions (e.g. small business lending, personal  trust services, investment banking) through branches. Furthermore, ICT can facilitate transactions among customers within the same network (the network effect) (see Farrell and Saloner, 1998; Katz and Shapiro, 1995; Economides and Salop, 1992). Example the case of automated teller machines (ATMs) by banks.  If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase since customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location they want (Milne 2006).  This  would imply that the value  of an ATM  network  increases  with the  number  of available  ATM locations,  and the value of a bank’s network to a customer  will be determined in part by the  final network size of the bank.   Indeed,  Saloner  and  Shepard  (1995),  using data  for United States commercial  banks for the period 1971-1979, showed that the concern of network effect is important in the ATM adoption of United States commercial  banks (see also Milne, 2006).It should be mentioned that as the global reach of  the  Internet  implies that  financial  services can increasingly become borderless and global, a pan-European initiative for could increase customer confidence, as certainty for customers that all banks are protected in a similar fashion may increase the customer’s perception of security.Support the skills development among bank personnele-Banking and ICT have caused the traditional branch-based banks to change the service offerings in their branches. The business model of dual-combination banking (banks offering internet-banking and branch-based banking) is emerging, which implies that customers are increasingly performing basic banking tasks online while relying on bank branches only for more sophisticated, advisory tasks. The dual- banking   model   can  give  traditional   branch banks the opportunity to adjust their branch network towards advisory functions and away from  traditional  teller  services,  thus  adding value to their customers from direct and customised bank advisory services.This development however means that an increasing number of jobs are being changed from traditional tellers to branch advisors/counsellors. Bank staff is increasingly asked   to   provide   highly qualified   financial advice rather than perform simple teller functions. As both the econometric analysis and the case studies show, bank staff is being retrained to perform such tasks. From the econometric analysis it can be seen that ICT usage in financial services have a significant skill-bias towards medium-skilled labour, which The banking industry in Tanzania has witnessed tremendous changes linked with the developments in ICT over the years. The quest for survival, global relevance, maintenance of existing market share and sustainable development has made exploitation of the many advantages of ICT through the use of automated devices imperative in the industry. This study evaluates the response of Tanzania banks to this new trend and examines the extent to which they have adopted innovative technologies in their operations and the resultant effects.1.3 Statement of Research ProblemThe role of ICT in banking industry effective use of ICT is assisting banks to be more customer-centric in their operations by building a solid foundation for customer relationship management, to grow the range of products/services while mitigating fraud levels and improving risk management, to widen their customer base, reduce transaction & operational costs and to gain or retain competitive advantageA. Khanna (2003) notes that technology has changed the contours of the three major functions performed by banks i.e. easy access to liquidity, transformation of assets and monitoring of risks Further, IT and the communication networking systems have a crucial bearing on the efficiency of money, capital and foreign exchange markets.What are therefore the developments and implications of ict on banking in Tanzania? Banks in the country are increasingly gravitating towards digital technology to create value for their Customers and in competing for market shares. Still, banking in the country is beset by long Queues, energy exacting and time-consuming, and on the whole costly (Appiah and Agyemang 2005). It defeats the purpose of customer service to see the hard time that many customers go through to access banking services around the end of every month when most salaries are paid through the banks. This has resulted in the loss in potential exchanges as many people simple keep money outside the banking system to avoid the ordeal meted out to them by the banks (William et al 2005; Appiah and Agyemang 2005).Physical cash and paperwork still characterize most of the payment systems in Tanzania and remain popular in spite of the introduction of digital payment cards. The main focus of adopting digital technology by the banks, as it appears to us from our own experiences as bank customers, is to network customer accounts information across branches to create business value (operational excellence) rather than customer value. In eliminating time, space and distance constraints, customizing products and services, effecting payment or cross-selling, the internet stands out as the biggest digital platform for businesses that leverage the technology.. Ho and Ko (2008) also identify labour cost for banks as an incentive to introduce technology-based self-service offer to customers. Most Tanzanian bank customers also appear to be more comfortable with over-the-counter banking services than online banking and give it little or no attention although utilizing ATMs and other digital services is a way of life for many bank customers. Indeed, leveraging a new technological platform is not a guarantee for success as learned the hard way by many early dotcoms during the internet boom. Internet banking can boost growth and profits for a bank but it necessitates considerable resources for both banks (Williamson 2006, Bauer et al. 2004) and bank customers in Tanzania. Therefore banks offering online banking need to continually evaluate the value they offer to their customers by taking into account customers’ value perceptions in order to be reactive or proactive (Kotler and Keller 2006) and to identify factors that affect those value perceptions to achieve a customer-centric management strategy. “Customer Value needs to be seen from the customer’s viewpoint in terms of the value s/he sees in interacting with the organization” (Customer Value Foundation 2007). 1.4 Research question1.4.1 General Research questionWhat is the impact of modern ICT development to the financial service sector performance (FSSP)?The researcher answered the following research questions:(i)    What were the relationships between the adoption of modern ICT concepts and organization’s performance?(ii)    What were the current strategic roles of organization’s managements that are used to enhance an optimum utilization of the modern ICT? (iii)    What were the challenges facing Organization’s management in implementing the modern ICT concept?1.5 Research Objectives1.5.1 General Research objective.The impact of modern ICT development and management to the FSSP in the URT. 1.5.2. Specific Research objective.(i)    Determined the relationships between the adoption of modern ICT concepts and organization’s performance specifically on FSSP.(ii)    Determined the current strategic roles of organization’s managements that are used to enhance an optimum utilization of the modern ICT. (iii)    Determined the challenges facing Organization’s management in implementing the modern ICT concept1.6 Significance of the studyThe study was geared toward contributing the following to the stakeholders at large; It contributed views to general stakeholders on the impact of modern ICT development and management to the FSSP and facilitate work organizations in attaining their performance objectives. It provided proper means of delivering a result oriented ICT functions through formulating and re-designing ICT strategy implementation that can best enhance an operational efficiency. It also contributed to the existing body of knowledge and act as reference for other researchers who will be interested to researching in this area.1.7 Scope of the study Geographically the study was conducted in Dar es Salaam in the URT. Specifically it was conducted at the NBC branches in Dar es Salaam city. 1.8 Limitation of the studyBased on the prevailing scarcity of research resources namely; time, financial and human resources, the researcher conducted the study as a case study at the NBC.1.8 Limitation and scope of the studyHowever, this study faced many problems and the study  involve the use of sample, generalization will be made, while the study  restrict  itself in a case study approach and thus, it may be difficult to secure reliable data.  Other factors, which are anticipated to limit the study, include:-1.8.1    Time constraintThis study has been carried out for a short period of time because it is the obligation to do so as to follow the deadline of the academic calendar. Time constraint affected both, the quality and quantity of the research study because the researcher had to use fewer respondents and only one Financial Institution as a case study which is National Bank of Commerce.1.8.2 Financial constraintLack of adequate finance affects the quality and quantity of data to be collected during the study. This hindered the researcher to conduct the study effectively because the researcher was not able to interview as many respondents as possible. Not only that but also funds is not enough to facilitate the conducive environment for the entire study as the  cost of living, transport fare and medical expenses are very much high.1.8.3 being new to the respondents.Some of the respondents create artificial behavior and become resistant in giving out information on their free will.  In this circumstance it is better to try the best to get accustomed to the respondents and narrate clearly the objectives of the study.1.8.4 Lack of sufficient data.The researcher faces the problem of data collection during the fieldwork; this is due to confidentiality of some documents as well as some respondent’s lack of co-operation with the researcher during the actual research.  Some documents are not also available in the area of the study.1.8.5 Sample size selectedSince the research conducted in Dar es Salaam and at the offices of NBC Bank the sample size selected involved only 50 respondents, this may not give a true representation of the real situation of the research topic. Thus, a small sample size affects the reliability of the data to be collected.  1.9 Delimitation of the studyThe study faced with many problems such as lack of sufficient data, fund shortage, time limit, being new to the respondent, which hinder the accuracy of my research. But I tried to solve this problem by reduce the less important expenses so that I can meet with available amount and complete the research report. 1.9.1 Time constraintFollowing the time management, the study carried out for a short period of time because it is the obligation to do so as to follow the deadline of the academic calendar the researcher have to use fewer respondents and only one Financial Institution as a case study which is National Microfinance Bank in order to save the time allocated.1.9.2 Lack of fund Due to lack of fund, the researcher tried to solve this problem by reduce the less important expenses so that she/he can meet with available amount  that can complete the research report and collect  accurate data for low cost which will not affect the quality and quantity of the research. 1.9.3 Lack of sufficient data.In case of lack of sufficient data the researcher tried to target respondents of which will give the accurate data for the research  and  try to explain to the respondent how to fill the questionnaire and what data  expected to get from them according to the requirement which are in questionnaire.1.9.4 Sample size selectedAccessibility of some respondents in the sample is expected to be difficult since these are busy executive officer. The researcher counter this limitation by using other data collection approach such as telephone interview and questionnaires, and provide for estimated response rate.

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MODERN TECHNOLOGY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL SERVICE SECTORS



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