THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON STAFF PERFORMANCE IN A PRIVATELY OWNED ENTERPRISE (A CASE STUDY OF SELCON ALUMINIUM PRODUCTS LIMITED, IKOT ABASI.)
The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between staff motivation and job performance in Selcon Aluminum Products Limited, Ikot Abasi. The study specifically examines the relationship between intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivation and job performance respectively. The survey research method was used to carry out the research study. The findings of the study showed that there is a positive relationship between Staff motivation and job performance for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are equally important in ensuring job performance. Thus, managers need to keep both factors in mind as they come up with ways to further motivate their employees into providing excellent service but extrinsic motivation should be considered more.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Organizations seem to exist based on their goals and objectives. This is perhaps why the attainment of organizational goals takes a paramount position in management thought. The attainment of these goals however is said to be dependent largely on the resources at the disposal of such organization. Salient among the resources for the achievement of organizational goals in the human resources as the organization is dependent on their job performance.
However, one of the most difficult aspects confronting the management of most organizations today, be it private or public, is how to make their workers become efficient. Managers most often fulfill their organizational goals through the work of employees. Thus, managers need to have highly efficient and productive staff. Although many factors contribute to the performance of any organization, irrespective of the kind, employee motivation and job performance is commonly taken to be the most influential one.
Motivation is simply defined as those processes, both instinctive and rational, by which people seek to satisfy the basic drives perceived needs and personal goals which trigger human endeavour (Cole, 2002) while job performance is the behaviours that are relevant to the organizational goals and can be measured in terms of each individuals proficiency or level of contribution (Wright and Noe, 1996). It is a function of four variables: ability, understanding of task environment, and motivation (Mitchell, 1982:82-83).
Accordingly, in order to perform well employees need to have the knowledge and tools that are required for the job as well as the will to do what is asked from them. In addition there are two forms of employee motivation and they have varying impact on job performance. According to Mc Cormick and Tifflin (1979), motivation can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation stems from motivations that are inherent in the job itself and which the individual enjoys as a result of successfully completing the task or attaining his goals. While extrinsic motivations are those that are external to the task of the job such as pay, work condition, fringe benefits, security, promotion, contract of service, the work environment and conditions of work. Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are important in motivating employees (Herzberg, 1959). Therefore, motivation can be generally equated with action and the understanding of motivation unfolds to be a key to the success of any private or public organization.
Various studies done on this subject matter revealed that personnel performance plays a significant role in the overall development of an organization and there is a relationship between employee motivation and job performance. Both intrinsicand extrinsic motivation has varying result (Cole, 1996; Dessler, 1994; and Ubeku, 1975). This study therefore seeks to assess the impact of motivation on staff performance in Selcon Aluminum Products Limited, Ikot Abasi.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Motivation plays a key role in staff performance. Thus, staff motivation has long been a central research topic for both scholarsand practitioners. As a result, an abundance of theories and approaches were developed in order to explain the nature of workers motivation in the private and the public sector.
However, most of these studies fall short of practical application or offer it only for the private sector. Studies have shown that the main objectives and purpose of personnel performance is achievement of target goals set by the organization which is fully dependent on the performance of its personnel and that personnel performance plays a significant role in the overall development of the organization (Cole 1996, Dessler, 1994 and Ubeku 1975).
The issue of job performance has been a great concern to many organizations especially in Nigeria. There have been many agitations on the part of the workers which have led to several industrial unrest. The workers of Niger chin Nigeria Limited and Kablemetal Nigeria Plc were on strike for many monthsdemanding for a better working condition (Adikwu 2006 and Democratic Socialist Movement 2008). This had led to many job cut and loss of profit on the part of their management. To pacify these workers, their management had tried to put some measures on ground by motivating them through financial inducements, provision of welfare services, many of them have also introduced casual workers which has even worsen the situation.
Several factors are believed to influence a person’s desire to perform his work. The Need Based theories explained these desires: they explained the importance of motivation primarily as a phenomenon that occurs intrinsically, or within an individual and job satisfaction. Also, the Social Cognitive theories believed that putting all other things in place, the personal disposition of an individual plays a very significant role.
Employee motivation is one of the fundamental instrument for regulating work behaviour of staff and the optimization of work behaviour can best be achieved by motivating the workers (Olawoyin, 2000). According to Ololube (2006) motivation to work whether intrinsic or extrinsic are very essential in the lives of workers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. As important as motivation is to workers performance studies have supported the importance of intrinsic motivation over extrinsic motivation. For example, citing Maslow need hierarchy, Herzberg two factor, Mclleland achievement motivation and Alderfer Existence Relatedness and Growth theories, Cole (1996); Drucker (2002) and Mercer (1998) claimed that financial rewards and incentives are important but they are not sufficient positive motivation. To them, intrinsic motivation such as natural or personal drives, desires, impulseetc, belonging to a person internally, has a role to play in the performance of workers.
To this end, the researcher wants to examine the following issues and also offer recommendations to solve the problem;
(a) Of what effect is the relationship of work environment to performance?
(b) Is goal attainment in an organization dependent on intrinsic or extrinsic motivation?
(c) What is the importance of attitudes and sentiments in determining the results of the changes in the job situation?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Various researches have shown that the efficiency of any organization depends on how well the workers are encouraged to work. Thus, this work intends to:
(i) assess the impact of employee motivation on job performance,
(ii) examine the concepts of motivation and job performance,
(iii) determine the relationship between motivation and job performance,
(iv) ascertain whether the employees are satisfied with their jobs and the purported motivating factors or whether their propensity to work is only to make ends meet and to earn their salaries to satisfy daily needs and
(v) make suggestionsand recommendations towards improved motivation that will enhance job performance based on the findings of the research.
For the purpose of this study, the researcher intends to use the following hypotheses which shall be tested for verification or otherwise.
(i) Intrinsic motivation tends to be positively related with job performance.
(ii) Extrinsic motivation is likely to be positively related with job performance.
(iii) As employee’s motivation increases, job performance tends to increase.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The fundamental purpose of this study is to assess the impact of motivation on staff performance. This study is expected to broaden management insights pertaining to employees’ motivation and the key role it plays in the overall job performance. It will also assist management to devise strategies that can sustain highly motivated work force so that the end result will be that all stakeholders would be satisfied with the performance of the organization.
This study will also broaden the understanding of employee motivation issues therebyenabling employers and managers to systematically develop strategies to deal with motivational problems in organizations.
This study will be an addition to available literature in this subject area. It will also stimulate the research interest of researchers who may then be motivated to investigate the issues of motivation and employee motivation in future. This study will also serve as a good reference material to the academics, and the general public.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The goal of this study is to assess the impact of motivation on employees’ performance; using Selcon Aluminium Products Limited as a case study. In general, the study covers the theoretical aspects of motivation and job performance. The empirical section will focus on Frederick Herzberg two factor theory of motivation to gain insight about the relationship between employee motivation and job performance.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In the course of conducting this study, the researcher encountered various forms and degrees of challenges. First and foremost finance and time constraint were major challenges which has impeded on the qualityof this work. The second challenge in that the researcher was also constrained in the area of accessibility to official documents concerning the history, functions and the organogramof the company.
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A survey research method was used in this study. It involves using a self-designed questionnaire in collecting data from a representative sample of the population.
The population for this study was all employees of Selcon Aluminium Products Limited, Ikot Abasi with the staff strength of 150 which constituted the universe of the study.
1.8.2 SAMPLING AND SAMPLE SIZE
The simple random sampling technique was employed to select the sample for the study. This sampling technique was found suitable because the study was interested in gaining an understanding of the problem being investigated without any attempt to manipulate or control the sample subject.
The sample size comprises of 100 randomly selected employees of the target population.
1.8.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The method of data collection adapted in this study is essentially in two fold. The first part consists of secondary sources which are journals, books, newspapers and internet materials while the second part consists of the use of questionnaire, personal interview with staff and direct observation.
1.8.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The data collected from the field were analyzed based upon the research hypotheses and objectives of the study.
For this study, simple percentages and regression analysis were employed for the purpose of data analysis. Simple percentages were used for both the bio-data and survey questions while the regression analysis was used for testing of the hypotheses formulated for the study.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The basic concepts, utilized in this study are explained as follows:
MOTIVATION:Motivation is that which causes, energizes, direct or channel and sustain human behaviour in work environment.
PERFORMANCE: This is the act of doing things successfully according to prescription.
JOB PERFORMANCE: This is the execution of a work related task..