Cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous roots, a major source of carbohydrates. It is a shrub with an average height of one meter, and has a palmate leaf formation. Cassava belongs to the family of rubber plants with a white latex flowing out of its wounded stem and leaf stalk. The stem is the planting material from which grows the roots and shoots. Cassava produces bulky storage roots with a heavy concentration of carbohydrates, about 80 percent (Babaleye, 1999).

The shoots grow into leaves that constitute good vegetable rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. New knowledge of the biochemistry of the crop has proved that the proteins embedded in the leaves are equal in quality to the protein in egg (Philip, 1984). Cassava leaves and roots, if properly processed can therefore provide a balanced diet protecting millions of African children against malnutrition. One of the major constraints to increased cassava production in Nigeria is declining soil fertility due to continuous cropping and erosion losses.

 The use of chemical fertilizers alone to sustain high crop yield has not been quite successful due to enhancement of soil acidity, nutrient leaching, degradation of soil physical condition and organic matter status. Interest in the use of organic manures is increasing day by day. Malcolm (2011) reported that organic manures are fertilizer compound that contain one or more kinds of organic matter. The ingredients may be animal or vegetable matter or a combination of the two. It is possible to purchase commercial brands of organic rich fertilizer as well as prepare organic fertilizer at home by building a compost heap. Animal manure is a common ingredient in the creation of organic fertilizer. Organic manure consists of plants and animal residues at various stages of decomposition.Organicmanure is responsible for most desirable surface soil structure, promotes a greater proportion of larger pore size, improves water and air relations and reduces erosion by wind and water. It also improves nutrient status of soils, increases the level of organic matter in the soils and gives high residual effect on soil fertility. Roy et al. (1990) reported that animal manures are excellent soil amendments, but very little is applied to cultivated fields in the tropics and sub-tropics.

Although organic matter in most cultivated soil is only 1 – 5% in the top layer of soil (0-25cm) that small amount can modify the soil physical properties. Organic manures are excellent sources of organic matter but relatively low in nutrients; therefore, to obtain optimum yields from continuous cropping, additional nutrients from N.P.K. fertilizers will be needed to compliment organic fertilizer.

However, Akoroda (1990) reported that the use of organic manure and N.P.K. fertilizer supplies appreciable cash income to peasant farmers.  Since the majority of farmers active in arable crop production in Nigeria are poor, agricultural practices which are cheaper and are more readily available to them should therefore be introduced to them. The response of cassava (Manihot escullenta) to various types of animals manure and N.P.K. fertilizer applied in combinations are not known to have been investigated in Nigeria.


1 To access the effectiveness of organic manure and N.P.K. fertilizer on soil properties and shoot dry matter yield of cassava (Manihot escullenta).

2 To establish the optimum rate of combined use of organic manure and N.P.K. fertilizer for cassava production.


2.1 Description and History of Cassava

The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm homogenous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial varieties can be 5 to 10cm in diameter at the top, and around 15cm to 30cm long. A woody cordon runs along the roots axis. The flesh can be chalk – white or yellowish, cassava roots are very rich in starch, and contain significant amounts of calcium (50mg/100g), phosphorus (40mg/100g) and vitamin C (25mg/100g).However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein and rich in the amino acidlysine, though deficient in methionine and possibly tryptophan (Phillips, 1984).

According to Stephen (1995), the largest producer of cassava is Brazil, followed by Thailand, Nigeria, Zaireand Indonesia. Production in Africa and Asia continues to increase, while that in Latin America has remained relatively level over the past 30 years. Thailand is the main exporter of cassava with most of it going to Europe. It was carried to Africa by Portuguese traders from the Americas. It is a stable food in many parts of western and central Africa and is found throughout the humid tropics, its cultivation was continued by the colonial Portuguese and Spanish. Forms of the modern domesticated species can be foundgrowing inthe wild in the south of Brazil. While there are several wild manihot species, all varieties of cassava M. esculenta are cultigens.

2.2 Economic Impact of Cassava

Cassava, together with yams (dioscorea species) and sweet potatoes (ipomea batatas) are important source of food in the tropics. The cassava plant gives the highest yield of food energy per cultivated area per day among crop plants, except possibly for sugarcane. Cassava plays a particularly important role in developing countries farming especially in sub- Saharan Africa- because it does well on poor soils and with low rainfall, and because it is a perennial crop that can be harvested as required. Its wide harvesting window allows it to act as a famine reserve and is invaluable in managing labour schedules. It also offers flexibility to resource poor farmers because it serves as either subsistence or a cash crop while underground storage of cassava is advantageous for managing work schedules, it may also lead to reduced quality of the roots, sometimes leaving the root unsuitable for many types of processing. In some areas farmers have to come to increasingly rely on dried cassava chips.

Nweke et al. (1992) revealed that about 42% of harvested cassava roots in west and east Africa are processed into dried chips and flour. No continent depends as much on roots and tuber crops in feeding its population as does Africa. In the humid and sub-humid areas of tropical Africa, cassava is either a primary staple food or a secondary co-staple. In Ghana, for example, cassava and yams occupy an important position in the agricultural economy and contribute about 46% of the agricultural Gross Domestic product (GDP). Cassava accounts for a daily calorie intake of 30% in Ghana and is grown by nearly every farming family.  The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomized in the ewe (a language spoken in Ghana, Togo and Benin Republic) name for the plant, agbeli, meaning “there is life”. However, the price of cassava has risen significantly in the last half decade and lower income people have turned to other carbohydrate rich food, such as rice (Philips, 1984).

In Tamil Nadu, one of the 28 states of India, the national highway 68 between Thalaivasal and Alltur has many cassava processing factories (local name sago factory) alongside it indicating an abundance of it in the neighbourhood. Cassava is widely cultivated and eaten as a staple food in Andhra Pradesh and in Kerela. In the sub-tropic region of southern China, cassava is the fifth largest crop in terms of production, after rice, sweet potato, sugar cane and maize. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60% of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province, Guangxi, averaging over seven million tons annually.



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing