INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN AKWA IBOM STATE (A CASE STUDY UNDP)
This study is neither a condemnation nor a platitude of the relationship between the UNDP actives and the development level of Akwa Ibom State, but rather, a careful assessment of the extent development, the level of Poverty, the role of the UNDP in the development of the area of study, and the role of the UNDP in the fight against poverty in such areas. Data for the study were collected from four hundred and fifteen (415) respondents who were randomly selected for questionnaire administration. The data were analyzed through simple percentages and chi-square test (X2). With due appreciate of the structural functional as well as poverty oriented and community development theories for the theoretical framework; the study conducted in Akwa Ibom State revealed that the need for poverty alleviation could not be over-emphasized. And that for development to become of the area it is needful to alleviated poverty. Hypothetically, the study confirmed that: there is a direct relationship between the location of UNDP projects and the lives of residents; UNDP projects and poverty level of beneficiaries, and community development and success of UNDP projects. Finally, the research proffered numerous recommendations major of which include: the need to curtail bureaucratic bottleneck, preference for the use of the target group as against the government functionaries, and the need to sponsor more researches in this regard.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page = = = = = = = = = i
Dedication = = = = = = = = = ii
Acknowledges = = = = = = = = = iii
Abstract = = = = = = = = = xi
Table of contents = = = = = = = = iv
CHAPTER ONE GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study = = = = = = 1
1.2 Statement of the problem = = = = = = 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study = = = = = = 3
1.4 Significance of the Study = = = = = = 4
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis = = = = = = 5
1.6 Definition of Terms = = = = = = 6
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Poverty and Development Issues = = = = 8
2.2 Types of Poverty and Other Issues = = = = 9
2.3 Theoretical Framework = = = = 11
2.4 Poverty Oriented Theories = = = = = = 12
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Methodology and Profile = = = = = = 14
3.1.1 Design = = = = = = = = 14
3.2 Source of Data = = = = = = = = 14
3.3 Method of Collecting Data = = = = = = 15
3.4 Sample Population = = = = = = = 15
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis = = = = = 18
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary = = = = = = = = 25
5.2 Conclusion = = = = = = = = 26
5.3 Recommendations = = = = = = = 28
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Research findings have proved that poverty reflects a whole avalanche of deprivations within a society. The emergence of poverty is therefore broad with regards to the changing norms and customs. Townsend (1979), argues that poverty cannot be viewed from a narrow perspective. Through highly industrialized societies such as Germany, United States of America and the Great Britain could not be said to be devoid of poverty, it is more prevalent in poor and undeveloped societies such as Nigeria. Poverty deprives a society of the instruments to build the block for the future and bright chances as well as technological advancement.
In the light of this, Oppenheim and Harker (1996:4-5), are of the opinion that poverty steals away opportunity to have a life unmarked by sickness, a decent and proper education, a secure home and a long retirement. And it could be seen or perceived as a pervasive phenomenon that could neither be circumscribed nor controlled, but which keeps threatening not only one country, group of countries, regions nor a continent, but in the view of UNDP (1997:9), one independent and integrated world. The perspective of poverty causation is basically accessibility to income and / or basic services. In which case, poverty in the developing countries is basically income-determined (UNDP (1997).
However, poverty can also be seen or viewed as a result of deprivation and lack of access to basic services. Therefore, while there could be contending views as to why poverty exists, an academic disagreement exists in the assumption that identifying the problem provides the basic for action and that poverty exists and affects every individual and nation through varying degree and impact. At this standpoint, it could be suggested that understanding the different perceptions of poverty becomes inevitable in proffering solution to the problem of poverty, according to Dangifer and Plotnick (1981:148). This is buttressed by the fact that at the community level, poverty is perceived as lack of community resources as evident in inadequate infrastructure and basic social amenities, limited employment and income providing opportunities; inadequate access to agricultural inputs (particularly modern ones) and a degraded natural environment with low soil fertility, as well as other problems.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The global concern against poverty, its pernicious effects have continued to perpetuate negative pressure on individuals, organizations, societies and above all, the international communities. Since the effects also transcends the quarters affected. Thus, according to Onajide et al, (1990:183), every individual and organs of the society strive for the alleviation of the abject poverty. On the topic “Akwa Ibom Government set to Eradicate poverty” Development Catalyst (1997:9) reports that the participation of Akwa Ibom State Government in UNDP programmes is aimed at the total reduction or total eradication of poverty in the State and that efforts are being made to carry out action in poorest communities both in the urban and rural areas of Akwa Ibom State since it has the high level of poverty profile.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study sets out to achieve the following objectives:
i. To assess the physical and material contributions of UNDP to Akwa Ibom State.
ii. To assess the extent to which the UNDP has achieved its programmes in the fourth and fifth country programmes.
iii. To ascertain the development approaches adopted by UNDP with a view to recommending same to the Nigerian individual, organization and government in their effort for development.
iv. To observe the peculiarities UNDP programmes benefiting communities.
v. To ascertain the people’s reaction to the contributions of the UNDP towards poverty alleviation.
vi. To make recommendations that would assist the success of the poverty alleviation programmes of the UNDP and the general development.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Obviously, it is known fact that all third world countries have some inherent features which are attributes that make them look alike. This include high rate of poverty, high rate illiteracy, malnutrition, high rate of poverty of infant and maternal mortality, high rate of teenage pregnancies, high rate of school drop outs, low per capita income, falling standard of living, prevalent degree of child labour/abuse, high rate of unemployment, practical instability, etc. According to Aina and Salau (1992:15), all these characterize the Nigerian setting and Akwa Ibom State in particular.
Obvious is the fact that the above characteristic, which ensure poverty in the area, have much academic attention. Of course, such attentions study the social dynamics as regards to poverty with a view to alleviating its effects and reducing its tide. This course of fighting poverty has (as earlier stated) over time assumed individual, group, non-governmental organizations (NGO), societal and international dimensions. These categories of interests groups have variously played their role or part in the said fight against poverty. And this study, however, places major emphasis on the role of bilateral and multi-lateral agencies with particular reference to the UNDP. Thus, this study is of great relevance to individuals, non-governmental organizations, government at all tiers, as well as the international community.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHISIS:
In order to grant this study or work a sound and proper academic status, the following hypotheses are advanced:
HOI: There is no relationship between community development and the success of the UNDP projects/programmes.
H02: There is no relationship between the UNPD projects/programmes and the socio-economic status of beneficiaries.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS;
Development: As Advanced by Todaro (1981), development is "the process of improving the quality of all human lives." Expatiating further on the above, Ake (1996:29), opines that development is "the process by which people create and recreate themselves and their life circumstance' in accordance with their choices and values.
Sustainable Development: According to the report on Nigeria's threatening environment (1991:282-283), sustainable development seeks to meet the aspirations and needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future. It is a process in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional changes are an in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
National Development: This is reflection of economic growth instigated development which goes beyond mere surface of growth into. the structural institutions and systems of a nation under scoring better and levels. It is what every nation craves for.
In other words, it reflects any conscious attempt at relaxing nationalistic aspirations of achieving national productive capacities. The index for measuring it is usually the gross domestic product of a country at a given point in time but before such economic growth becomes development; it shall have transcended other facets of the society - education, politics, religion, family, law, etc.
Environment: The sum total of close system - both natural and human i.e. land, sea, plants, natural deposits, human beings and other animals.
Poverty: This reflects a state of being in which an individual is incapacitated by some social forces and thug unable to utilize the resources around him to develop his capacity and potentials in order to satisfy his basic average requirements in life. The requirements are reflective of ignorance, lack of basic needs such as food, shelter, clothes, etc.
Poverty Alleviation: This refers to the conscious effort(s) by those in authority or the poor themselves to reduce the effects and high level of poverty.
Capacity Building: This has to do with three major elements which include: Human Resources Development, Institutional development, and emphasis on overall policy environment within which organizations.