COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HOME-MADE JUICE PRODUCED FROM PINEAPPLE AND PAWPAW AND DETERMINATION OF THEIR NUTRITIONAL VALUES
Juice was produced from watermelon and stored at room (28±2°C) and refrigeration (8°C) temperatures and was analyzed for its microbiological and nutritional qualities. The total aerobic bacterial, coliform, mold and yeast counts increased with time. Total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 1.5×102 to 3.6×103 for water melon juice (WM), 1.3×103 to 2.3×102 for water melon/orange juice mix (WO) and 1.0×103 to 2.9×102 for commercially packaged juice (ST). Coliform counts were 1.0×103 to 2.9×102 for WM, 2.1×102 to 2.3×103 for WO and no counts were recorded for ST, while the yeast counts ranged from 2.4×102 to 2.6×103 for WM, 2.4×103 to 3.2×103 for WO and 0 to 1.2×102 for ST. Bacteria isolated were Bacillus sp. Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp., while the mold isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor sp. The yeast isolate was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vitamin C and total solid contents decreased with time while total titratable acidity and ash content increased on storage in freshly made juice samples, commercially packaged juice which served as a control showed negligible changes. The general acceptability tests revealed that the commercially packaged juice (ST) was preferred on account of taste and flavor while water melon juice (WM) was preferred based on colour. The water melon/orange juice mix (WO) was however, not preferred because of colour, flavor and taste.
1.1Background to study
Fruit contains many beneficial qualities to one’s health as they provide an abundance of vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants and fibres which are all essential for human diet (Klee, 2010). Many people consume fruit juices on a daily basis, as it is becoming an important part of the modern diet in many communities. It acts as a nutritious beverage and can play a significant part in a healthy diet because they offer a variety of nutrients found naturally in fruits (Cleveland, 2006). However, they may also have high sugar content. Although the sugar is natural, it may not be healthy in high quantities. It is suggested that too much sugar could pose harmful health effects as people could develop diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and other complications from excess consumption (Muraki, et al., 2013). Bottled fruit juices is criticized by its concentration or additionally supplemented sugars and contributing the extra calories when consumed in excess (Gormaker, 2008) and in plight of this, companies have contemporarily been marketing fruit juices with “no sugar added” feature in part to address the concern of exceeding the daily recommendation of sugar intake.
The comparison of the sugar content in freshly extracted fruit juice with the sugar content in bottled fruit juice claiming to have “no sugar added” is of interest for a number of reasons. If the sugar content in bottled fruit juice is higher than that of freshly extracted fruit juice, people may want to reconsider the amount of commercially bottled fruit juice they consume.
Fructose is one of the most abundant sugars in fruit juice. Some people believe fructose is healthier than sucrose because it is found naturally in fruit, however it can be equally harmful (Bazzano, Joshipura, and Hu, 2008). Fructose, also known as fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide absorbed directly into the blood stream during digestion. Fruit, vegetables, and honey are all natural sources of fructose. Crystalline fructose, high fructose corn syrup, and sucrose are all three common forms of fructose. Excessive amounts of fructose consumption have been tied to negative health effects. The ever increasing occurrence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease could be a result of excessive fructose intake as well. Also, fructose may promote the formation of glycotoxins, which may contribute to diabetes, the aging process, and the thickening of the arterial walls (Gaby, 2005).
Sugar content varies depending on the type of fruit. All fruit juices contain fructose, but vary in their amount of sucrose, glucose and sorbitol. Fruit with low sugar content include lemon, lime and blackberry. Fruits with low to medium sugar content include papaya, watermelon and apple. Fruits that are considered to have high sugar content include grape, mango, pineapple, and banana. In general, the level of sugar in the juice of a fruit is correlated to the level of sugar in the fruit itself. It is also relevant to know that not all fruits are made into juices. Some of the fruits made into natural and commercially bottled juices include watermelon, apple, orange, grape, pomegranate, pineapple, papaya, cranberry, sugarcane, and lime.
Fruit juice in moderate amounts can help adults meet daily recommendation for fruit consumption, nutrient intake, and calories (Nicklas and Kleinman, 2011). Maintaining the required blood glucose level among adults is of utmost importance, so as to enable all parts of their body (brain, liver, muscle, and heart) function effectively. In light of this, it is important for adults who are constantly exposed to various stressors which lead to depletion of their energy level, resort to the consumption of fruit juices which is a ready source of energy to maintain their carbohydrate metabolism.
However, adults may prefer fruit juices over whole fruit because they offer good taste and the way fruit juices are packaged friendly in such a way that solve the anaesthetics of adults and as oppose by the strenuous and rigorous processes of peeling, washing, and cutting of whole fruit before their consumption. Juices are the perfect fast food for today’s eat-on-the-run lifestyle.
1. To compare the effect of natural and commercial fruit juices on blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.
1. To find out if natural and commercial fruit juices hasthesame effect on blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, OfuomaUghelli.
2. To find out if there is a significant difference between the effect of natural and commercial fruit juices on blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.
H0: Natural fruit juice does not increase blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.
H1: Natural fruit juice increases blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli. B.
H0: Commercial fruit juice does not increase blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.
H1: Commercial fruit juice increases blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology, Ofuoma-Ughelli.
1.5 Statement of Problem
Natural fruits are one of the healthiest foods we can consume, relatively loaded with vitamins, minerals and free radical antioxidant. Fruit juices on the other hand are also often perceived as being healthy; this is understandable given that it has the word fruit in it. To date, several studies have been conducted to compare the effects of natural and commercial fruit juices on blood glucose level, but the results have been conflicting and entirely inconsistent. Some studies found that natural and commercial fruit juices does not have thesame effect on blood glucose level, while other findings suggested that natural and commercial fruit juices increases bood glucose level and other studies have also found that natural and commercial fruit juices might not equally be associated with increased blood glucose level. Therefore this research work is aimed at comparing the effect of natural and commercial fruit juice on the blood glucose level of students in Delta State College of Health Technology Ofuoma-Ughelli.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. Many of them that bear edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food (Lewis, 2002). Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the World’s agricultural output, and some (such as apple, pineapple, and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbiotic meanings.
In common language usage “fruit” normally means the fleshy seeds associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in raw state, such as apple, oranges, grapes, bananas, strawberries, lemon, watermelon, and pineapple. In the culinary sense of these words, a fruit is usually any sweettasting product, especially those associated with seeds.
2.1 Fruit Juices
Juice is a liquid (drink) that is naturally contained in fruits and vegetables. It can also refer to as liquids that are flavoured with these or other biological food sources such as meat and sea food. It is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavouring in foods. It is also a common practice to mix juices of different fruits and vegetables. Juice did not emerge as a popular beverage of choice until the development of pasteurization methods allowed for the preservation of juice without fermentation (Ryan, 2011). The food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimated the total world production of citric fruit to be about 12,840 318 tonnes in 2012..