This research work is based on the design and installation of photovoltaic power system. A room and parlor self contain at Ara village Kwara state was used as a case study. A total load of 740 watts a total wall hour capacity of 5840wh and total battery bank 1474.75Ah all was determined during the sizing of the apartment under study. The cost of using a diesel generator and electric from the public utilities (national grid).  The result shows that after 1 year and 8 month, the cost of using diesel generator will be equal to the amount spent on photovoltaic system, also after 8 year 1month, the cost of using electricity from public utilities (national grid) will be equal to the amount spent on photovoltaic system.


Title page i

Certification  ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgment iv

Abstract v

Table of content vi


1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Renewable energy 1-6

1.2 Renewable energy for heating 6

1.3 Renewable energy for transport fuel 7-8

1.4 Aim & objectives of the study 8-9


2.0 Photovoltaic (PV) 10-12

2.1 Solar cells 12-13

2.2 Materials uses for photovoltaic 14-16

2.3 Photovoltaic systems 16

2.3 Photovoltaic module 17

2.5 Photovoltaic energy 18-19

 2.6 Working of pv cell 19-21


3.0 Materials and methods 22

3.1 Specification of the appliances 22

3.1.1 Photovoltaic module (PV) 23

3.1.2 Charger controller. 24

3.1.3 Battery 24 

3.1.4 Inverter 25

3.2 Sizing 25-28

3.3. Choice of components for solar energy 

power supply for 740 watt load 29

3.3.1 Solar panel 29

3.3.2 Charger controller 29-30

3.3.3 Battery capacity 30


4.0 Life cycle analysis 31

4.1 Cost of diesel generator (740w) 31-33

4.2 Cost of using electricity (740w) 32-33

4.3 Cost of installing solar powered PV system 33

4.4 Cost analysis 34-35


5.0 Conclusion and recommendation 34

5.1 Conclusion 36

5.2 Recommendation 37-38

Reference 39-40




Renewable energy is energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating and 3.4% from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable [REN21,2011] 

Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually with a worldwide installed capacity of 282,482 mega watts (MW) at the end of 2012 and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United State. At the end of 2012, the photovoltaic (PV) capacity worldwide was 100,000MW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Italy. Solar power stations are popular in Spain, and the Mojave Desert. The world’s largest geothermal power installed is the Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA [WAE, 2001] [3] while many renewable energy projects are large scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. [Ben,2011].

As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, and micro-hydro configured into minigrids serves many more over 44million households use biogas made in household scale digesters for lighting and or cooking and other than 166million households rely on a new generation of more efficient biomass cookstores. [a] [Schroeder & smith, 2008]. United nations secretary, general Banki Moon has said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new level of prosperity.] [Carrington, 2003].

Climate change and global warming concerns, coupled with high oil price, peak and increasing government support, are during increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. According to a 2011 projection by the international energy agency, solar power generators may produce most of the world’s electricity within 50 years, dramatically reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that harm the environment. [IEA,2012].

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various form, it derives directly from the sun or from heat generated deep within the earth. Includes in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.

Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number efficiency and technological diversification of energy sources would result in significant energy replaces conversional fuel in four distinct and four security & economic benefits [Kris,2013]

Renewable energy replaces conversional fuels in four distinct areas, electricity generation, hot water/ space heating motor fuels and rural (off-grid energy services] [Encyclopedia,2013]

POWER GENERATION – Renewable energy provides 19% of electricity generation worldwide. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, rapid and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas for example, 14% in the U.S state of IOWA, 40% in the nor them. Germany state of schleswing. Holstein and 49% in Donmark some countries get most of their power from renewable, including Iceland [100%], Norway [98%], Brazil [86%], Austria [62%] Newzealand [65%], and Sweden [54%] [Steve,2011].


Solar hot water make an important contribution to renewable hat in many countries, most notably in china which now has 70% of the global total [180GWh]. Most of these systems are installed on multifamily apartment building and meet a portion of the hot water estimated 50-60million households in china. Worldwide total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy surpassed that of oil direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly.


Renewable biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the limited states since 2006. The 936billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68billion liter of gasoline, equal to about 5% of world gasoline production.

At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20% of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond, and some 120 countries have various policy targets for longer term shares of renewable energy including a binding 20% by 2020 target for the European Union some countries have much higher long-term policy target of up to 100% renewable outside Europe, a diverse group of 20 or more other countries target renewable energy shares in the 2020-2030 time frame that range from 10% to 50%.

In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power, requiring utilities to use more renewable energy (even if this increase the cost, and use of such technologies. There is substantial optimism that renewable energy investment will pay off economically the long term.] [Edwin,2011].


The aim of this project is to install a 2KVA stand above photovoltaic system, using an office in physics department as a case study.


1. To generate electricity from solar energy in while the source is free in nature and abundant.

2. To find solution to irregularity in power supply by PHCN

3. To carry out the system sizing in solar power generator.

4. To study the performance of each component constituting the solar power generator.



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