INCIDENCE OF BACTERIA IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY, IMT, ENUGU


 INCIDENCE OF BACTERIA IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY, IMT, ENUGU

ABSTRACT:   

Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine. One hundred samples of midstream urine were collected from 100 female students of department of science Technology (those living off campus and those living in school hostels within the age range of 17 – 31 years. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of samples was done. Urine was cultured on blood agar, nutrient agar and macconnkey. Identification of bacterial isolates using grams reactions and biochemical tests was done. The organisms isolated were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus spp, Psendomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes. The prevalence of bacteriuria amongst female students of science Technology, IMT Enugu (age range of 27 – 31 years old living in hostels), was 29%, that is 16 out of 54 samples of urine investigated were significant bacteriuria, which those living off campus within the age range of 27 – 31 years old were 7%.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Aim and objectives 

1.3 Statement of the problem

1.4 Hypothesis 

1.5 Limitations of the study          

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and methods

3.1 Materials 

3.1.1 Bacteriological culture medial (solid) composition and preparation

3.2.0 Method

3.2.1 Sterilization of materials and aseptic techniques

3.2.2 Collection of specimen 

3.2.3 Transportation of materials/samples

3.2.4 Analysis

3.2.5 Culture of sample/plating technique

3.2.6 Gram staining method

3.2.7 Preliminary identification of microbial isolates

3.2.8 Procedure of biochemical test for identification

CHAPTER   FOUR

RESULTS OF TABLES

CHAPTER   FIVE

DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Incidence of bacteruria is the presence of bacteria in urine, (100,000 or more pathogenic microorganism per ml).  Acute urinary infection may be preceded by associated with asymptonatic bacteriuria (Roper, 1979).  This includes with renal bacteriuria and bladder bacteriuria.  Bacteriuria can occur with or without pyurie.  The urinary tract comprises of the kidney, bladder, ureter and urethra.

Bacterial infections are commonly referred to as urinary tract infection (UTI).  Urinary tract comprises a wide variety of clinical entities, whose common denominator is microbial invasion of any of the tissues that make up the tract, extending from the renal cortex to the urethra meatus.

The normal urinary tracts remain sterile from the nephron to the internal meatus.  However, it is very important to differentiate true bladder infection from ordinary exogenous are thrall contamination.  When the urinary tract is infected, protein and pus cell in addition to bacteria are usually faunal in the urine.  The presence of pus cells in the urine (pyuria) is a much more certain sign of urinary tract infection than that of protein.

It was observed that these infections of the kidneys, urethia, urethrs, and the bladder may result and the bladder may result with the present of pus cell, red blood cells and microorganisms in the urine.  It was also reported that in humans, bacteria are commonly present in the lower urethra.  However, their number decreases in regions near the bladder.  This decrease is caused by some antibacterial effects exerted by the urethre lining.  The inflammation in the sensitivity of strech receptors involves in mictuntion reflex.  A scalding pain is experienced while urine is being passed out.

This is due to the hyperlgesia of the nerve so that flow of urine becomes an adequate stimulus to excrete them.  This leads to a frequency of bladder eraculation with only small volume being passed out.  A string inch to micturate may be experienced even when the bladder is practically emptied.  Apparently significant bacteriunia are some time detected in the absence of clinical symptoms and are known as symptomatic or covert bacteriuria.

Infection in the urinary tract can lead to serious disorder in the system, these disorder include cystitis, pylonephritis, urethritis and calculi.

Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder.  This condition may be acute or chronic.  The symptoms include burning sensation when urine is passed.  The frequent need to urinate, occasionally blood in the urine, and sometimes difficult in starting to urinate, cystitis is rarely accompanied by high fever.

Pyelonephritis is a form of a renal infection, which spreads outwards from the pelvis be the cortex of the kidney.  The origin of the infection is usually from the ureter or the blood stream.

Urethritis is the inflammation of the urethra.

Calculi are formed by preciptation of urinar/constituents, a small amount of organic material also being incorporated.  Deposition is favoured by highly concentrated urine, and by secretion of excessive amounts or one or other constituents (oxalate, urate and calcium salt).  Calculi occur in the renal pelvis or in the bladder.  Although, some of the latter originate in the kidney cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis and calculi deserve prompt and adequate treatment.

Experience has shown that bacteria counts of over 100,000 organisms per ml of urine usually indicate urinary tract infection but that counts of less than in number can result from contamination.  It is generally accepted that 105 or more CFU 1ml (colony forming unit) of urine is significant bacteriuria.  Though the patients may be symptomatic or asymptomatic (Anderson, 1976).

Bacteriuria was believed to be as a result of urinary contaminants washed into the urinary tracts from the genitals by many agents and most of these infections remain limited to the urinary tract, but some may lead to an extensive disease processes involving other organs and sometimes leading to death.

The thra of infected urine, as a rule will include one more of the following organisms:

i. Escherichis Coli

ii. Klebsiella Pyocyane,

iii. Proteus Mirahilis

iv. Pseudomomas aeruginosa

v. Neisseria gonorrhea

vi. Streptococlus Faecalis

vii. Staphylococcus aureus

viii. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

x. Salmonells species

Escheriolua coli is the most common organism that causes urinary tract infection, accounting for greater than 80% of first infections and 75% of recurrences of other gram negative organisms such klebsulla, Entensbacter, proteus and pseudomonas are frequently seen in complicated or recurrent infections and they account for an additional 10 to 15% of infection (Edward et al., 1995).

By middle age, however, the incidence of prostate bladder and urethral disease rise rapidly, and the incidence of bacteriuris in elderly men approaches that in women, Kunin also reveals that the presence of bacteriuria in men over 70 years of age to be 3.5% and may be as frequent as 15% in hospitalized elderly men.  Age and sex are contrasting in effect in urinary tract infection prevalence.  Boy have the greater number of urinary tract infection than girls in infanthood while in adult, the women bear higher number (Kunin et al, 1979), due to the fact that their urethra are shorter and closer to the rectum permitting bacteriuria to enter the more easily.  These bacteria multiply in this urine contained in the bladder walls.

The main factors predisposing to bacteriuria are stasis.  The sterility of normal urine flow rats in the bladder is excreted before significant multiplication can occur.  This interruption of urine flow can allow bacteria to multiply and produce clinical infection.  Other causes of bacteriuria are illicit sexual intercourse, poor hygiene and use of spernucides increases the risk of urinary tract infections.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1. The aim of this work is to find out the incidence of bacteruiria amongst the female students of Science Technology.

2. The objectives are to enlighten the students and the public in general on the ways in which they can avoid being infected.

3. To inform the students on the dangers of being infected.

4. Lastly, to inform the students on the preventive measures.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Female students living in the hostel have toilet facilities similar to that of public use, they are exposed to the dangers of contacting urinary infections. Illicit sexual intercourse and case of spermicides also cause bacteria infections. Mostly female students in the hostel when they are infected they will be having scratches in their vaginal, syphilis, staphylococcus and other diseases etc. therefore, it is necessary to reduce the incidence of bacteriuris amongst the female students in I.M.T Enugu. Thus, proper sanitary condition of the toilet facilities and the school environment as a whole is needed.

1.4 HYPOTHESIS

Hi: Bacteriuria is not common amongst the female student of science technology living in the hostel.

Ho: Bacteriuria is not common amongst the female students of science technology living in the hostel.

1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

(1) The cost of reagents, materials and equipments for carrying out the practical aspects of this research work is very exorbitant, since the institution does not have the materials and the reagents and the equipments required for the research work, costs a huge amount of money for the students to provide the necessary thins needed.

(2) The time duration for the study to be carried out was another factor that could have limited this study.

.

INCIDENCE OF BACTERIA IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY, IMT, ENUGU



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