Ripe plantain peels (RPP) and unripe plantain peels (UPP) were subjected to solid state fermentation using pure culture of three fungal isolates, namely Aspergillus niger, a flavus and penicillium sp. After seven days of fermentation a niger, a flavus and penicillum sp increased the crude protein content of both unripe plantain and ripe plantain peels by 34, 30.3, 2.3 and 9.5, 4.5, 4.0% respectively. Though the UPP fermented with pencillium sp showed the least percentage increase in the crude protein content after seven days of fermentation, it recorded the highest percentage increase (39.8%) when fermentation was allowed to continue for 21 days. Except in the ripe plantain peel fermented with A niger, the sugar content of the waste also showed an increase after seven days of fermentation with the ripe plantain peel fermented with a flavus recording the highest percentage increase of 142.6%.

There was a corresponding reduction in the cellulose content of both unripe plantain peel and ripe plantain peel with the ripe plantain peel fermented with A Niger showing the highest percentage reduction of 300%.

Available information reveals that the nutritional value of plantain peels is increased by fermentation using A. niger A. flavus and pe nicillium sp.


Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Literature Review


2.1 Material

2.2 Method


3.1 Result


4.1 Discussion 

4.2 Conclusion

4.3 References



Fermentation is a metabolic process converting sugar to acids, gases and or alcohol using yeast or bacteria. In it strictest sense, fermentation is the absence of the electron transport chain and takes a reduced carbon source such as glucose and makes products like lactic acid or acetate (Oboh et al., 2002).

Fermentation is one of the oldest methods of applied biotechnology, having been used in food processing and presentation as well as beverages production for over 6000 years (Motarjemi, 2000)

The fermentation processes of staple food serve as a means of providing a major source of nourishment for large rural populations and contributing significantly to food security by increasing the range of raw material which can be used in the production of edible products (Adewusi et al., 1999). Fermentation increases the nutrient contents of food through the biosynthesis of vitamins, essential amino acids and protein. It improve protein quality and fiber digestibility. It also enhances the availability of micro nutrient to organisms for utilization and aids in the degradation of anti nutritional factors (Achinewhu et al., 1998).

The bioconversion of agriculture and industrial wastes to chemical feedstock has led to extensive studies on cellulolytic enzymes produced by fungi and bacteria waste and their disposal have become an environmental concern worldwide especially when these waste are biodegradable to useful goods and services (Shide et al.,2004).

Three major waste management routes have been identified, namely sewage disposal, composting and landfill and bioremediation (William,2001) out of which sewage disposal provides opportunity for possible recovery of useful product after biodegradation.

The use of biological means in the degradation of waste, especially agro-industrial by- products has greater advantages over the use of chemical because biotechnologically synthesized products are less toxic and environmentally friendly (Liu et al., 1998). Hence the modern world encourages a shift towards the use of microbes in degrading agro-industrial waste. So far, the literature has been silent on the use of some fungi to achieve this purpose in plantain peels.This study therefore intends to report the changes in the protein, cellulose and sugar contents of both ripe and unripe plantain peels when fermented with A. Niger, A. Flavus and penicillium sp (Iyayi, 2004).


Plantains are a member of the banana family. They are a starchy, low in sugar variety that is cooked before serving as it is unsuitable raw. It is used in many savory dishes somewhat like a potato would be used and is very popular in Western Africa. It is usually fried or baked. Plantains are grown most widely in tropical climates.  


A. niger belong to the kingdom of fungi, phylum ascomycota, class eurotiomycetes, order eurotiales, familyoftrichocomaceate,genus aspergillus,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            species of A. niger fungi. A niger is a fungis and one of the most common species of the genus aspergillus. It cause a disease called black mold on 

certain fruits and vegetables such as grape, onions and peanuts and is a common contaminant of food.

ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS                                                                                                                                     

         A Flavus belong to the kingdom of fungi,phylum ascomycota, class eurotiomycetes, order eurotiales, family of trichocomaceate, genus aspergillus, species of A.flavus fungi. Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is found globally as a saprophyte in soils and cause disease on many important agriculture crops common host of the pathogen are cereal grains and legumes.


Penicillium belong to the kingdom of fungi, order eurotiales, family of trichocomaceate, genus penicillum, penicillium is a genus of a   scomycetous fungi of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production. Members of the genus produce penicillin a molecule that is used as an antibiotic which kills or stop the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body.


⦁ To know the nutritional value of plantain wastes

⦁ To know the protein content of ripe plantain peel (RPP) and unripe plantain peel (UPP).

⦁ To investigate the potential green and mature plantain peel as a support substrate to produce laccase extracellular enzymes.

⦁ To treat waste and enriching products with protein content



RESEARCHWAP.COM is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • " is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • " is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing