1.1 Background of the study 1

1.2 Statement of the problem 4

1.3 Purpose of the study 5

1.4 Research hypothesis 7

1.5 Significance of the study 8

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study 9

1.7 Definition of Major Terms Used        10


2.1Political participation 12

2.2 Political culture 19

2.3 Political Socialization 22

2.4 Elections 24

2.5 Education 25

2.6 Sex and Sexism 31


3.1 Research Design 33

3.2 Sample and Sampling Techniques 34

3.3 Population 34

3.4 Research Instrument 35

3.5 Validity of Instrument 36

3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 36

3.7 Administration of Instrument 37

3.8 Method of Data Analysis 37


4.1 Result 39



5.1 Summary 43

5.2 Conclusion 45

5.3 Recommendation 47 




This research work investigated the effect of education and gender on political participation in Nigeria. A case study of Ilorin East Local Government Area. However, it tends to study how education and sex are positively or negatively affect the people participation in Nigeria politics. 

The researcher will look critically at why some people participate in politics and why others are apathetic to political activities. 

The rate at which the educated and non-educated people involves in politics as well as the exclusive influence of gender (male and female) on people’ concern for politics will be adequately analysed and examined in detail. 



Background to the Study 

The concept, political participation is very important especially in a democratic set up or in an ideal society. Democracy itself assume high level of participation, it could be direct or indirect involvement. Generally, there are various factor affecting the level at which some people participate and some do no participate. The topic “Effect of sex and education on political participation in Nigeria” will measure why some are apathetic and why some feel alienated. Nigeria is a multi ethnic country that had measure why some are apathetic and why some feel alienated. Nigeria is a multi ethnic country that has experience a lot of political instability and with the enthronement of democracy, males and the educated seems to participate more than the illiterates and the females.    

Participation in politics is a civic duty or responsibility in which every citizens of a particular society are expected to perform. Herbert Mclosky on his part sex political participation as those voluntary activities by which members of a society share in the selection of rulers and directly or directly in the formulation of public policy. Political philosophers over the years have extolled political participation as defense against misrule of tyranny. 

The above definition implies that political participation is an integral part of democracy. He more “active” forms of participation include formal enrollment in a party, canvassing and registration of voters, working in campaigns, competing for public and party offices donating money for a political programmes and attending political rallies etc. 

It’s necessary to note that people are not compelled to participate in politics but a civic responsibility. Political participation is influence by different factors. These factors account for why people participate and why they do not. Therefore, they possess some psychological traits like apathy, cynicism, alienation and anomies. Another reason why people do not participate in the political process can be imputed or attributed to the level of development in terms of political, social and economical aspect of the society. Meaning that modern society given their level of development participates effectively than the primitive or traditional societies who are less developed in terms of socio-economics and political aspect of life.   

From the above illustration one can easily deduce that wealthy individuals and complex society tends to be more politically conscious than the poor individuals and more primitive societies. Other factors includes: sex and education shall be critically analysed and examined. 

It is generally believed hat males are more politically conscious as compared with their female counterparts vis-a-is functional literate people participate actively in politics than semi-literate or ill-educated. This has explained or given credence to the relationship that exist between education, sex and political participation in Nigeria. Thus we are using Ilorin West Local Government Area as a case study to either confirm or falsify the statement. 

1.2 Statements of the Problem 

Problem solving is an integral part of our day activities. It is certain that problem must exist before solutions are provided. Any forms of government where majority do not participate in tyrannical rather than being democratic. In most developing states like Nigeria where greater number of illiterate and female in the ever increasing population, are prevalent, government tens to be oligarchic and falsely democratic studies shown that men are more politically active than woman. This is largely because the average education level of women is lower than that of men. Women constitute more than half of the adults population but fewer women run for public offices or are elected. If political participation is a sufficient condition to test a democratic government, then it is relevant to probe into why people refuse to participate in greater number, if the constituting or political system calls for it. This is the issue underlying this study. 

1.3 Purpose of the Study 

This project tends to study human behaviour with regard to political activities. The case of the trend of cynicism is to so unique in Nigeria and the causes have to be identified in order to come up with prospective recommendations Nigeria, no doubt, is a British creation. The large geographical territory later known to b Nigeria after the historic amalgamation of cardinal geographical components in 1914 by that “man” of destiny Lord Lugard has since been battling with problems of integration and national unity. The much orchestrated unity of Nigeria in diversity has to do with the effort of successive Nigeria government and learners in mapping out socio-political, religions and economic strategies at fostering unity in a pluralistic society made up of diverse cultures. 

One of these strategies is the evolvement of a political arrangement, that would allow maximum participation of people from different ethnic group that make up the country in the policies, programmes and affairs the affect their lives. And since everybody could not involve in the government process of administration, such participation in decision making process has to do with the elected representation. That is why political parties are formed and elections were organized to allow the citizens to elect individuals of their choice to represent them in various organs of government where vital decisions bordering on the welfare of the people are taken. And that is why democracy as a system of government allows for wider participation of the spectrums of the society in government. The concern of the researcher(s) is to carry out a functional research on political participation as it is affected by education and sex in Nigeria, and choosing Ilorin East Local Government Area as a case study. 

It intends to find out whether education affects political participation or not, and also to find out any effect of sex disparity on political participation among the people of Ilorin East.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Research hypothesis are testable statements that provide direction and tentative explanation of a given phenomenon. Hypothesis, here is considered to be solution to problem of the present trend of cynicism pervading our country, Nigeria, a case study of Ilorin East. 

1.5 Significance of the Study 

The result of this research work could be used to measure need for a perfect democratic experimentation. It will be able to give direction toward attaining a political advancement level that will give priority to mass education and women education to put a stop on political alienation and women subjugation. This could equally result in magnifying the ability of the policy makers to determine a general acceptable policy. 

It will reveal some implicit factors that bring people’s perception about politics as uninteresting and dirty and the need to disabuse their minds. The result of this research work could be a useful guide to political researchers who are interested in political analysis. 

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study 

This refers to the clear boundary of the study with the respect to the consent coverage and the geographical location. As stated above many factors affect political participation e.g. sex, religion, age, poverty, occupation and education. The content area covered for the purpose of this study or projects are sex and education. Sex and education shall be critically analysed and examined. The basic concern is to study human behaviour with regard to political activities. 

The research focus on how the variables to be tested affect political participation in Nigeria. Our case study is Ilorin East Local Government Area in Kwara State. We shall also make use of 1999 general election as the political activities on which our general statement will be based. 

1.8 Definition of Major Terms Used

Political: In this study is concerned with the activities engaged by the people in selecting rulers who formulated the public policies that is what the people do in choosing people to government. 

Democracy: Democracy in this context means a form of government where people are allowed to elect the representative into different organs of government through political parties. This gives rooms for rights and freedom in involving in the government affairs. 

Election: - This is an instance when people choose there representative through votes into positions in government. 

Cynicism: This is the belief that people struggling or posts in government are doing for their own interest. Those people are self centred. It expresses a loss of confidence in people going into government by the citizens. 

Apathy: This indicates that the citizens are not interest in political activities. This people perceive political to be dirty game and are not interested in carrying out their civic responsibility e.g. people do not vote, they don’t campaign or contest for position. These are refers to political apathy. 



Every individual, groups or organization are motivated or galvanized to some instincts at a particular time over a particular issues. This chapter focus on the behaviour of every concerned individual or groups as it related to political issues. 

The concept to be discussed and reviewed shall include political behaviour, political participation political culture, political socialization, election and as well as education and sex. 

2.1 Political Participation 

To begin with, participation is an ingredient of every polity, large or small. Whether the society is an oligarchy or a democracy, someone must make political decision and appoint, uphold and remove leaders those who fail to participate: whether out of neglect o exclusion are likely to enjoy less power than other men. Although not all who participate possess effective power, those who do not participate cannot exercise or shared. 

As these observations imply, the right to participate is an essential element of democratic government, inseparable from such other attributes of democracy as consent, accountability, majority rule, equality and popular sovereignty. Indeed, the growth of democratic government is a part measured by the extension of the suffrage and the correlative rights to hold office and to associate for political purposes.  Whereas traditional monarchies restrict power and participation largely to nobility and their agents, democracies have in principle transformed the prerogative into rights enjoyed by everyone. 

The expansion of participation was partly stimulated by the desire to give meaning and force to the principles of consent, accountability, and political opposition. Participation is the principle means or mechanism by which consent is granted of withdrawn in a democracy and rulers are made accountable to the ruled. Since man can be equal and free only if they share in the determination of their own affairs, participation has been viewed as a mans for realizing these democratic objectives as well. 

Cook and Morgan (1971) shift our attention towards non-elitist decision making units. Hence, workers should participate directly in making and applying rules on working conditions, wages and similar matters: students should participate in decision making on teaching, curriculum and campus life: an racial or ethnic minorities should be maximally involved in decision regarding their housing, schools welfare payment an the like. 

Richardson (1983) also expatiates on political participation. He conceived participation to mans force or re-educate the participant to gain an awareness of governmental problem and politics and this will not only inhibit the public from pressing for solution to heir won problems but will also enable the authorities to legitimize their decisions with the stamp of public approval. 

Republican and Democratic theorists from Rousseau Onwards have either urges or assumed that a proper system of government must provide opportunities for political participation by the ordinary citizens. The opportunity to vote in periodic competitive elections is the minimum condition that a government system must satisfy to qualify as democratic and most liberal theorists, indeed most political scientists, have believed that further opportunities and forms of political participation are highly desirable. Therefore, the concept of political participation is not nearly as complex as the concept of representation is not currently contestable. 

As regard, political participation according to international encyclopedia of the social science means participation in the process of government and the cases of political participation is essentially a case for substantial numbers of private citizens (as distinct from public officials or elected politicians) to play a part in the process by which political leaders are chosen and or government policies are shared and implemented. Therefore, the main forms of political participation can easily be listed. And are as follows: - 

a. Voting in local or national election  

b. Voting in referendum 

c. Canvassing or otherwise campaigning in election 

d. Active membership of a political party

e. Active membership of a pressure group 

f. Taking part in political demonstrations, industrial strikes with political objectives, rent strikes in public housing and similar activities aimed at changing public policy. 

g. Various forms of civil disobediences, such as refusing to pay taxes or obey a conscription order. 

h. Membership of government advisory committees. 

i. Membership of consumer councils for publicly owned industries. 

j. Client involvement in the implementation of social policies.

k. Various forms of community action, such as those concerned with housing or environmental issues in the locality. 

However, as a result of 36 years of military interregnum in Nigeria political activities which give much impetus to ethnic cleansing, human right violations and abuses, ethnic militias, religion intolerance, corruptions etc has forced the entire people to participate actively in political phenomenon so as to be well represented in government a typical examples is May 29th 1999 democratic election. 

Political behaviour analysis does not deny the important of political institutions: rather it conceive of them as patterns of individual behaviour that are more less uniform, and regular and can be analysed interms of the behaviour of their molecular units. Individual political behaviour is seen as deriving its meaning of significance from the institutional contents in which it occurs. 

Secondly, political behaviour analysis chooses a frame of references that is shared by the behavioural analysis must be in disciplinary; it cannot neglect the wider context in which political action occurs. It is bound, therefore, do consider the possible effect of social culture and personal factor on political behaviour. 

  The interdisciplinary focus of political behaviour inquiry sensitize the observer to the level of analysis on which research may be conducted most appropriately and fruitfully and some problems of political behaviour are best formulate and explored on he level of social relations: others on the level of culture and still others, on the level of personality which level of analysis is chosen depends on the problem under inquiry and on the degree to which generic rather than particularistic explanations are sought. 



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