INFLUENCE OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL NETWORKING (E.G FACEBOOK) ON PHYSICAL INTERACTION
The study examine influence of personality and social networking(e.gfacebook) on physical interaction, This study was undertaken majorly To know if social networking (facebook) has reduced physical interaction. Specific objectives of the study are: To ascertain whether gender has implication for the use of social network (facebook).To know which individuals in the extraversion, introversion dimension use facebook more, To determine the ways through which people can be encouraged to engage more in physical interaction, To create a background work for further research and investigation.
Concerning methodology for this study, the major instrument used for this study is the questionnaire. A sample population will be used to collect primary data using the structured questionnaire and interview as research instrument.The target population for this study consists of Ambrus Ali University Students.Random sampling technique was used in this study. The sample size determined for this study was three hundred (300) students selected from five departments in Ambrus Ali University. Sixty (60) students were selected from each department.The researcher adopted a test retest method to ensure the reliability of the research instrument. The statistical analysis adopted was correlation. All computations requiring the use of data analysis technique were accessed by a computer statistical software package called SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences).
Findings from the study reveals that majority of the respondents are of the opinion that physical interaction is decreasing daily. Another finding from the study reveals that social networking has significant influence on physical interaction.
This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a bench mark or guide for other work or study. It avails individuals with information about facebook, its users and importance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - -
1.2 Statement of General Problem - - - -
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - -
1.5 Hypothesis - - - - - - - - -
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - -
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - -
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - -
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
2.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - -
2.2.1 USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY: (Lazaisfeld and Stanbon (1944)- - - - - - - - -
2.2.2 THEORY OF NEED AFFILIATION: Mcleiland (1958)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2.2.3 THEORY OF SOCIAL INTERACTION: HANNAH HUMPHREY- - - - - - - - - - - - -
2.2.4 CARL JUNGS THEORY OF INTROVERSION AND EXTROVERSION (1933) - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2.2.5 EYSENCK: INTROVERSION-EXTRAVERSION (1967)- - -
2.3 SOCIAL NETWORKING - - - - - - -
2.4 FACEBOOK- - - - - - - - -
2.5 PHYSICAL INTERACTION - - - - - -
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - -
3.3 Area of the Study - - - - - - - -
3.4 Population of Study - - - - - - - -
3.5 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - - - -
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - -
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - -
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - -
3.9 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - -
3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - - -
4.3 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - -
4.4 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - - -
4.5 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - -
4.6 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - -
References - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - - - -
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Theorists such as Louis Wirth and Talcott Parson(2012) have emphasized the importance of mass media as instruments of social control. In the 21st century, with the rise of the internet, the two way relationships between the mass media and the public is beginning to change with the advent of new technologies such as social networking, blogging and so on.
Media (Singular medium) are the storage and transmission channels or tools to store and deliver information or data. It is also referred to as synonymous with mass media or news media but, may be refer to a single medium used to communicate any data for any purpose. Media technology has made communication increasingly easier as time passed throughout history. Today, children encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available. The internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media for communication. Tools such as email, facebook, and so on, have brought people closer together and created new on line communities. However, some may argue that certain types of media can hinder face-to-face communication and therefore can result in complication like identity fraud.
When a new communication medium is introduced, individuals are quite, taken by its uniqueness or novelty. A definition of communication by Lierouw,(2005) is the “Process by sharing ideas, information and messages with other(s) in a particular time and place”. Participating in the information age requires individual and societies to quickly and effectively communicate and disseminate information like never before. This is particular evident in regards to communication on social network sites which has result in communication methods being shortened to as few characters as possible, reaching out to a large number of persons at once; it has strongly enhanced spontaneity as individuals can respond immediately to events in real time.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As human beings, our real method of connection is through authentic communication. Studies show that only 7% of communication is based on the written or verbal word. A whopping 93% is based on non-verbal language. For example, on a Friday afternoon, SharopnSeline exchanged text messages with her daughter in college. they chatted back forth, mom asking how things were doing and daughter answering with positive statements followed by emotions showing smiles, and heart happiness.
Later that night, her daughter attempted suicide in the days that followed, it came to light that she’d been holed up in her dorm room, crying and showing signs of depression a completely different reality from the one that she covered in facebook post and text. Indeed, its only when we can hear a tone or voice or look into someone’s eyes that we’re able to know when “I’m fine” doesn’t mean they are fine at all. This is where social media get dicey.
With the use of technology, anyone can hid behind the text, facebook post, email, projecting any image they want and creating illusion of their choosing. They can be whoever they want to be. And without the ability to receive non- verbal cues, their audiences are none the wiser. With all the powerful technologies at our finger tips, we are more connected and potentially more disconnected than ever before. In an ironic twist, social media has the potential to make us less social, a surrogate for the real thing. For it to be a truly effective communication vehicle, all parties bear a responsibility to be genuine, accurate, and not allow it to replace human contact altogether.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In light of the statement of problem, this study is designed to ascertain the following;
1. To know if social networking (facebook) has reduced physical interaction.
2. To ascertain whether gender has implication for the use of social network (facebook).
3. To know which individuals in the extraversion, introversion dimension use facebook more.
4. To determine the ways through which people can be encouraged to engage more in physical interaction.
5. To create a background work for further research and investigation.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Has social networking reduced physical interaction among people?
2. Does gender have implication for the use of social network (facebook)?
3. Does extroverts use social networks more than introverts?
4. In what ways can people be encouraged to engage more in physical interaction?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: Social networking (facebook) has nosignificant influence on physical interaction.
Hi: Social networking (facebook) has significant influence on physical interaction.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a bench mark or guide for other work or study. It avails individuals with information about facebook, its users and importance.The knowledge and use of social networks (facebook) is not just important or relevant for adolescence alone but also to every individual in any profession or career as it helps to make them better understand the usefulness of social network (facebook), misinformation and inappropriateness of social network (Facebook) can then be corrected.
1.7 Scope/Limitations of the Study
This study is on the influence of personality and social networking on physical interaction with a view of finding a lasting solution to the problem.
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Personality:refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.
Social Networking: is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections
Physical Interaction:The act or process of interacting, that is, the state of undergoing interaction.
USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY: (Lazaisfeld and Stanbon (1944)
Uses and gratification theory has provided a frame work for examining the satisfaction of needs and interests through different forms of communications media (Kartz, Blumler and Gvievitch, 1974). If two media serve similar needs then they can act as functional alternatives. However, if they are designed to serve different needs then they are specialized. One type of medium they be preferred to another if it is better at fulfilling certain needs such as entertainment or socializing (Peise and Courtright, 1993). Uses and gratifications theory has been employed in different forms of social communications because of the goal-directed nature of communications behaviour (Rubin and Rubin, 1985). The motives at play, such as relaxation or the acquisition of information can be quite different depending on the types of communication media used such as the television or the internet (Fergusion and Peise, 2000). Studies also found out that the motives for being using a computer mediated communication (CMC) were different from motives for using face-to-face communication was rated higher that the computer mediated communication (CMC) for all motives, including social ones like inclusion and affection.
Two forms of media may be so different that they alter social uses and social communication. At least in terms of romantic relationships, it has been suggested that interaction on the internet are different from face-to-face interactions. The anonymity afforded by the internet allows relationship to proceed quickly to intimate levels because of the limitations of other aspects of social contact (Merkle and Richardson, 2000). In some studies, individuals have been found to communicate less frequently and closely with internet partners than with non-internet partners. However, the internet is rated as less useful than face-to-face communication for maintaining social relationships.
Past research has employed uses and gratifications theory to examine motives, interest and attitudes behind face-to-face online communication (Ferguson and Persie, 2000). Flahertl et al., 1998)/ the theory suggests that if individuals find face-to-face communication and online communication useful to reach similar goals, then they will use the two media similarly. One should expect similar motives at work in the two forms of communication. If, however the uses of communication over the internet were different form those of face-to-face communication, then one could expect different motives as a factor in the two forms of communication.
High sociability and low shyness have been associated with increased traditional social behaviour (Asendorpf and Wipers, 1998; Bruch et al., 1989). Past research also indicates that high sociability would be associated with increased internet social communication. The greater anonymity provided by the internet suggests that, the motives maybe somewhat different in the two forms of social communication. The internet may also help reduce social anxiety experienced by shy individuals. This effect may led to somewhat different patterns of use in the two media for shy individuals. If this is the case, the motives behind traditional and internet social communication maybe somewhat different.
THEORY OF NEED AFFILIATION: Mcleiland (1958)
The need for affiliation by David Mccelland (1958) he says. Describes a person’s need to feel a sense of involvement and “belonging” within a social group; according to Murray (1938), people with a high need for affiliation require warm interpersonal relationships and approval from those with whom they have regular contact. People who place high emphasis on affiliation tend to be supportive team members, but may be less effective in leadership positions.
A research done by Schactee (1959) shows that fear that comes form anxiety increases the need for the person to affiliate with others who are going thorough the same situation or that could help them through the stressful event. Individuals are motivated to find and create a specific amount of social interactions. Each individuals desires a different amount of a need for affiliation and they desire an optimal balance of time to their self and time spent with others. This particular need concerns the desire to be associated with specific people and groups, to have a greater sense of belonging and place. It can play a role in a variety of human interactions and in the formation of bonds and friendships.
Theory of social interaction: Hannah Humphrey
Social interaction theory studies the ways that people engage with one another. Scholars from many disciplines including anthropology, sociology, psychology, and linguistic are interested in social interaction and the patterns that can be found in such interactions. According to Max Weber, social behaviour has two components. The first is the action or the behaviour itself. The second is the meaning that the ctor attaches to is or her behaviour. That meaning Weber refereed to as orientation, is how a person perceives his behaviour in relationship to other people. It is that knowledge of another who is affected that makes an action or interaction social.
Another early contribution to social interaction theory was Geiman- American Kurt Lewin, who developed the concept of group dynamics. Lewin was concerned with the interaction not just between individuals but between individuals and the groups that they belong to. The main contribution of group dynamics to later theories is that human behaviour results from the interaction between a person and his or her environment. Lewing wrote this theory as a mathematical equation, making behaviour equal to the function of individuals and the environment.
Theories of personality
CARL JUNGS THEORY OF INTROVERSION AND EXTROVERSION (1933)
Carl Jung (1933). According to his theory I am introvert is s person whose interest is generally directed inward toward his own feelings and thoughts, in constant to an extravert, who attention is directed towards other people and the outside world. Conversely, Jung explains that a person who is predominantly introverted tends to orient toward the internal or subjective world, while extroversion refers to an outgoing, social, accommodating nature that adapts easily to a given situation, quickly make friends and often venture forth with careless confidence into an unknown situation. He viewed introversion as signifying a hesitating reflective, retering nature that keeps to itself, shrinks from objects, always slightly in the defensive and prefer to hide behind mistrustful scrutingy. (Jung, 1964). Jung explained that although a person may be extraverted at time and introverted at some other times, he cannot be both introverted and extraverted on the same occasion.
Eysenck: Introversion-Extraversion (1967)
Eysenck (1967) formulated a theory, which emphasizes introversion-Extraversion in terms of observed behaviour tendencies and presumed underlying neurological states. At the behaviour level, the typical extrover6t is sociable, needs to have people to talk to and does not like reading or studying by himself (Eysenck and Eysenck, 1968)..