MORALE AND OFFICE PROFESSIONAL'S PRODUCTIVITY ( A CASE STUDY OF UYO CITY POLYTECHNIC)
This study was undertaken to find out the impact of Morale Office professionals in an organization. It was a survey study of Kaduna Polytechnic (College of Environmental Science) in Kaduna Metropolis several books and journals related to the topic were reviewed. Four (4) research questions were formulated to guide the researcher in the study. Data was collected from one hundred and fifty-six (156) respondents out of 200 questionnaires administered. Statistical table and Likert four point scales were used to present and interpret the data collected. Following the analysis, it was revealed that Office Professional Productivity is a tool in which organization need to be used, and good leadership and concern with employees welfare boost morale. Among other points, it was therefore recommended that Office Professionals side their organizations for improve productivity and to keep abreast on modern office equipments. Office Professionals should be promoted as at when due, to boost their morale.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vii
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 6
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - 8
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - 8
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 9
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - 10
1.7 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - - 10
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 11
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 13
2.1 Concept of Morale - - - - - - - 13
2.2 Understanding Individual Behavior - - - - - 17
2.3 The Effect of Motivating Office Professional in an Organization 19
2.4 The Role of Effective Communication in Boosting Worker’s Morale 23
2.5 Relationship between Communication and Office Professional 24
2.6 The Effect of Leadership Style on Office Professional’s Morale 29
2.7 The Role of Office Professional in the Relationship with the Employers - - - - - - - - - 31
2.8 The Impact of Working Environment on Office Professional Morale 34
2.9 Factors Influencing Office Professional Morale - - - 35
2.10 Morale and Office Professionals Productivity - - - 37
2.11 Morale and Office Professionals Productivity - - - 42
2.12 Summary of the Review - - - - - - 44
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 46
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - - 46
3.3 Area of the Study - - - - - - - 46
3.4 Population of the Study - - - - - - 46
3.5 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - - 47
3.6 Instrument for the Collection of Data - - - - 47
3.7 Validation of the Instrument - - - - - - 48
3.8 Administration of the Instrument - - - - - 48
3.9 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 49
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 51
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - 51
4.2 Major Findings - - - - - - - - 58
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - - 60
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 63
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - 63
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 64
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - 65
5.4 Areas for Further Study - - - - - - 66
References - - - - - - - - - 67
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: How does leadership style affect the morale and productivity of employees? - - - - - - - 51
Table 2: What are the techniques used in boosting workers and productivity level in an organization? - - - 53
Table 3: What impact does work environment have on employees’ morale and productivity in an organization? - - 54
Table 4: In What ways does the role of effective communication boosts workers morale and productivity in an organization - 56
1.1 Background of the Study
A major problem encountered by the management is to know what will motivate office professionals and its implementation. The question why people work is a controversial one because of the increasing complexity of industrialization in the society.
William (1984) opines that motivating staff does not end or stop at mere giving out of rewards and incentives but to be effective and consistence in maintaining the rewards system. Although, it has been the practice of most organizations to ensure that rewards provided are ones which are highly demanded and utilized, since the behavior and attitude put into production depending largely on the kind of rewards and incentives existing in the organization.
Porter and Lawler (1984) state that the first step in building effective reward practice is for the organization to ensure that rewards provided are ones which are widely desire by the office professionals on the day-to-day operation. This suggests that the reward and employer considers highly positive for certain office professionals may not be regarded by another set of office professionals in the same organization.
Eugene (2007) postulates that the first step towards achieving and maintaining the morale of the workforce lies in understanding the differencing factors which motivated individuals within a team. (i.e. some factors regarded as inspirational force to one team- member, may attempt to another team-member). This mean that there are many or numerous ways of determining factors that can highly motivate and influence the morale of office professionals but the most successful way is simply ask them what their desires are.
Mullins (1989) postulates that office professionals are experts of their own. The formal organization is now constantly changing with interested members and the individuals are central features of the organizational behaviors, and a necessary part of any behavioural situation, whether acting in isolation or as a part of a group, in response to expectation of the organization.
Productivity is the amount of output per unit of input (labor, equipment and capital). There are many different ways of measuring productivity. For example, in a factory productivity might be measured based on the number of hours it takes to produce a good, while in the service sector, productivity might be measured based on the revenue generated by an employee divided by his/her salary.
Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. Usually this ratio is in the form of an average, expressing the total output divided by the total input. Productivity is a measure of output from a production process, per unit of input (Onasanya 1990).
Productivity is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output). The methods of combining the inputs of production in the process of making output are called technology. Technology can be depicted mathematically by the production function which describes the relation between input and output. The production function can be used as a measure of relative performance when comparing technologies.
Office professional is an occupation or vacation carrier where specialized knowledge of a subjects, field or science is applied. Office professional is a member of vacation founded upon specialized educational training. The term is used more generally to denote a white collar workers or a person who performs commercially in a field typically reserved for amateurs.
Office professional may also refer to a person having impression competence in a particular activity.
The secretary has extremely vast and varied significance. He/she plays or functions as an office manager and combines his/her varied skills, good human relation, supervisory competence, creative and initiative to ensure a more productive and perfect organization of work-force in the office.
Onasanya (1990) states that, a secretary carryout the functions of communication in an organization. That is to say, the process by which information is disseminated between individuals, personnel in an organization is entirely necessitated by the secretary in that organization. A very efficient secretary is conscious of the importance of conveying the desired message in effective and appropriate manner, which in a way facilitates organizational productivity
Hornby (1995) opines that, Human Relation is one of the core functions of a secretary in an organization. It is the wholesome responsibility of a secretary to tactfully and wisely exhibit the role of Human Relations in order to create hard work.
Melvin (1990) said that as occasion demands, the secretary may be required to stand in for the executive when the Executive is indisposed and perform or carryout a general supervision in an organization.
A trader has little of no need at all for effective management of correspondences. However, as business expands, the need for paper work arises. Letters would have to be written and received, stored, processed and disseminated to the appropriate quarters for consumption. These documents may be needed for future references, which could only be formed or retrieved if they are properly kept.
Nwosu (1997) defines storage of filling as the process of sorting documents or correspondences into appropriate headings, which enables easy location. This practice is good so long as it does not allow dust and insect to destroy or muddle up the documents. But advances filing tools for long-lasting preservation of documents has been carried out for effective and efficiency secretarial work or function. This implies that organization is enriched with more information both the past and present via this function, performed by secretary.
It is also worthy of note that, secretarial functions have significantly enhanced the organizational administration operation. Whitehead (2001) states that, a secretary today the power behind the “throne” in many Executive situations. That is to say, behind every successful administration, a first class secretary acts as effective administration nerve.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The experiment has shown that most techniques adopted or deplorable by the employers is void of appeal to encourage and influence the morale of the office professionals, and by extension could hamper the best of the office professionals working ability and productivity. This is because employers of labour have not taken into cognizance of those factors that boost efficiency and effective performance which ordinarily could yield high productivity in organization.
More so, it is obvious that there is negative impression such as fear of reward system, which affects grossly the morale of the office professionals in achieving organizational goals. Some employers do not see the need of improving the staff welfare or give a better remunerations and incentives to them, and thereby has demoralize the morale of the workforce in the organization and has in turn reduced productivity of the office professionals.
In addition, some employers of labor erroneously believe that by showing, swearing and treating office professionals with termination of their contract or employment would propel them to perform their duties. Whereas, this factor could yield “good” results in a short-term and in the long run, the office professionals will likely contemplate on either to keeping the job or quitting.
Furthermore, the management in most cases are careless about what their workers feel productive or unproductive at work, and these have resulted to lateness, absenteeism, truancy, theft etc. all these are factors that have culminated to poor exhibition of attitudes toward work or performance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general objective of the study is to identify the effect of morale on an office professionals productivity in an organization, while the specific objective are as follows:
1. To find out the effects of leadership style on the morale of office professionals.
2. To identify the techniques used for boosting the morale of office professionals and their productivity in an organization.
3. To find out the impact of good environment on office professionals morale and productivity in an organization.
4. To investigate the ways in which effective communication of office professionals morale and productivity.
1.6 Research Questions
The following research questions have been formatted in order to help find out solutions to the problems under study.
1. What are the effects of different leadership styles on the productivity of office professionals?
2. What are the techniques used to boost office professional morale and productivity in an organization?
3. What impact does work environment have on office professional morale and productivity in an organization?
4. In what ways does effective communication influence workers morale and productivity in an organization?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this research will be of immense benefits to the office professionals, organization and the future researcher.
The study will enable the office professionals of an organization to identify factors that will motivate them and by extension, they will be encouraged to put out in their best and achieve a better output.
The study as well will be of great importance to the employers, since it will enable them to easily discover what is to be done, when and how to do them in order to gainfully devote the hearts of their office professional to work in an organization. More so, the study will indeed be of immense importance to organization, (i.e. management) as it will serve and enable them to identify factors that will boost employee’s morale working in the organization.
This research work will serve as a source or reference materials for on-coming researchers who may be writing on a similar idea or researching for similar problem.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is being conducted to find out factors that could boost and enhance employee’s morale in an organization. Therefore, the scope of this study would cover the effect of motivating workers in an organization, the roles of effective communication, effect of leadership styles on workers morale and productivity and the impact of working environment on workers morale and productivity in an organization.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The fact that the researcher was unable to use the entire population but instead resorted to sampling the study population posed a problem.
Another major constraints to this study was the problem of finance. The cost of designing the questionnaire, typing, photocopying and binding of the project, transportation cost to the various units and department of some organization several times to administer and collect the questionnaire, was very high.
The attitude of respondents was a real problem as some of them were nor ready to cooperate at all. The executives were simply out of reach. The few that the researcher was able to see, refused to attend to the researcher but instead suggested to change of topic as, to them, the topic is not researchable. Others asked the researcher to come back at a later date only to meet their absence or apology. Some of the respondents were on leave and so could not be reached.
Finally, the problem of time was a major limitation the time given was very sort as it carried alongside normal academic work.
1.8 Definition of Terms
In the course of this study some unfamiliar terms were used which are seen strictly in the light of this study:
§ Office Professional: A person having impression of competence in a particular activity.
§ Productivity: Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it.
§ Employee: A staff of a particular organization.
§ Morale: Means lifting an individual inner feelings or mind.
§ Motivation: It is a spring of action which intends to positively influence the performance of office professional in an organization.
§ Organization: A group of business that is formed for a particular purpose..