This study titled “Motivational tools and the Productivity of Office Professionals” a survey study of selected organization in Kaduna metropolis, examined in depth, motivational tools and the productivity of office professionals. Various literature were reviewed. Questionnaires were used and distributed to the respondents. Based on the population of 136 and the researcher collected 130 questionnaires for analysis, the analysis was based on four points scale to obtain a mean value for interpretation. The findings reveals that motivation helps in increasing productivity and those office professionals who are not motivated have negative effect on the organizational growth. It was also recommended that among others employers of labour should consider motivation as a way of boosting the office professionals morale towards organizational productivity and office professionals with low performance should be sent for further training is the part of motivation to update and improve their performance and higher productivity of  an organization. All motivated office professionals should be helps to attained and achieved organizational goals.


Title page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    i

Approval page    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    ii

Declaration    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iii

Dedication    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    iv

Acknowledgement    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    v

Abstract    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    viii


1.0    Background of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    1

1.1    Statement of the Problem     -    -    -    -    -    -    4

1.2    Objectives    of the study-    -    -    -    -    -    -    5

1.3    Research Question    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    6

1.4    Significance of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    6

1.5    Scope of the study     -    -    -    -        -    -    7

1.6    Definition of terms    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    8

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review

2.0    Introduction -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    1o

2.1    Concept of motivation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    11

2.2    Theories of motivation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    16

2.3    Motivational tools    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    22

2.4    Positive and negative motivation    -    -    -    -    -    25

2.5    Process of motivation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    27

2.6    The role of management in determining the method

of motivating employees    -    -    -    -    -    -    28

2.7    Concept of productivity    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    30

2.8    Measurement of productivity    -    -    -    -    -    -    31

2.9    Concept of  office processionals    -    -    -    -    -    32

2.10    Strategies and tools for motivating employees

(office professionals)    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    36

2.11    Effect of motivation on the productivity of office professionals    38

2.12    Summary of the review    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    41

CHAPTER THREE:  Research Methodology

3.0    Introduction  -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    42

3.1    Design of the study     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    42

3.2    Area of the study    - -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    42

3.3    Population of the study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    43

3.4    Sample technique or size    -    -    -    -    -    -    44

3.5    Method of Data Collection    -    -    -    -          -    45

3.6    Validation of the Instrument     -    -    -    -    -        45

3.7    Administration of the Instrument      -    -    -    -    -    46

3.8    Data analysis techniques-    -    -    -    -    -    -    47


4.0    Introduction     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    54

4.1    Analysis of research question    -    -    -    -    -    -    55

4.2    Major finding    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    66

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation     

5.0    Introduction     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    69

5.1    Summary     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    69

5.2    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    70

5.3    Recommendation    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    71

5.4    Area for further studies     -    -    -    -    -        72

References     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    74



1.0    Background of the Study

Motivation and the productivity of office professional can best be talked about when motivation is viewed from the angle of the employees (i.e. office managers) because it is the employees that make-up the organization.

In other words, when employees are well motivated and are doing well, they will be in the right frame of mine even at workplace and whatever they are doing, and in return, make the organization productive since the well being of the organization is a channel to their own (employees) well being. Also when employees or office professionals are well motivated by the organization their productivity would increase in a faster rate and profit will increase. (Abraham Maslow 1943),

The problem of motivating workers by the management is synonymous to all organizations, the view of management of organizations are that their workers are well motivated based on their overall net-profit margin, while on the other hand, the employees claim that management has not motivated them enough.

Human beings tend to have one need or the other at any point in time in their existence. Individuals are concerned as striving to satisfy those needs within a world of limited and unavailable resources we have. To satisfy those need certain behaviours must be exhibited that will lead to the desired goals.  That is, the inner drive that make them behave in such a way. This inner drive is the motivation.

Motivation can be defined as the management behaviour, action or incentive which enables the workers to willingly see, accept responsibility and carry out their work or task satisfactorily. They increase their productivity everyday, particularly as it has contribution towards the general economics of the world.

Motivational tools are those things put in place the employer t o force the behaviour of workers out. Motivational tool according to Matt Krumine (2000) says, motivational tools are those tools they enable the managers to motivate their workers or employees within and out side the organization, and it includes all the necessary tools that enable the employees to work effectively and get high productivity.

Motivational tool enhance the productivity of employee (officer professionals) when used effectively. Productivity refers to the aggregate performance of an organization or employees (office professionals) according to Palik (2003) define productivity as a ratio of a measure of output to a measure of some or all of the resources used to produce these out. Currie (1972), says productivity is the qualitative relationship between what we produce and the resources we used. Productivity is concerned with the ration of output to an input. Grezor (2001) also sees productivity as the way in which will enhance the performance of office professionals to the high level of the organization.

Office professional copes with all demands and stresses of the office in the way that he enjoys leadership control of crisis that might emanate from managing rewards people communication, information and other resources that are involved in making an office. according to MTU in Medilyn and Urwin (1980)l define office professionals as one in charge of typesetting, rewarding and keeping vital or confidential documents of an organization that some executives’ may not be allowed to access. That is why the thrust of this study is: what are the motivational tools that enhance the productivity of office professionals.

Motivation can be defined as the management behaviour, action or incentive which enables the workers to willingly see, accept responsibility everyday, particularly as it has contribution towards the general economics of the world. There are various motivational tools used by employer to activate them.

1.1    Statement of the Problem

The effect of motivation on the performance of workers cannot be overestimated as opined by motivation theorists such as Maslow. ( Abraham Maslow 1943).

However, some organization put more effort on structures, which include advertisement, promotion etc rather than on the workforce or the human resource. Their belief is that with or without the required input from the workers, they must succeed.

Some organization put more money and resources without achieving employees or workers’ performance and  higher productivity due to lack of  motivation and motivational tools that help to have high performance and productivity.

It is base on these issues that this study has decided to look into the  motivational tools and the productivity of office professional for an organizational achievement.

1.2    Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of this research work is to determine the motivational tools that lead to increase the productivity  of office professionals in an organization  specifically the study will:

1.    Identify the motivational tools that increase productivity of office professional in an organization

2.    To critically examine the effect of unmotivated employees in relation to organizational growth

3.    Determine the role of management in determining the best motivational tools to enhance productivity

4.    Ascertain the effect of motivational tools on office professionals’ performance.

1.3    Research Question

 This research work is based on the following research questions:

1.    What are the motivational tools required to increase productivity of office professional in an organization

2.    How does the motivation of office professionals lead to higher productivity?

3.    How does a particular section of workers in an organization shows lack of interest in motivation?

4.    To what extent do workers really perform  when they are motivated?

1.4    Significance of the Study

When the strategic of motivating office professionals are fully explored this study will be benefited to:

Organizations: The organization in designing alternative strategy to motive its workers in order to increase productivity from the findings of this study

Employees: It will enable office professionals in an organization to know how best possible ways of being motivated by their various organizations as well as the kind of motivation that would best suit them

Students: This will also assist students when embarking on any work similar to this study.

Further Researcher: Researchers that want to broaden this study will equally be of benefit as it will serve as a good source of material for them.

1.5    Scope of the Study

The study will be conducted in selected organizations in Kaduna metropolis which are: New Nigerian Development Company (NNDC), national Board for technical education (NBTE), National Eyes Center (NEC), power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHVN)l. the study also will cover so many aspects that are related to the topic which are: Motivational tools, and the productivity of office professionals.

1.6    Definition of Terms

The definitions of some of the terms used in the content of this project is given below:

Productivity: The major ability to growth things or the calculated rate of making goods. The ability to achieved the desire goals. It si the balance between all factors of production that will give the greatest output for the smallest effort.

Efficiency: Improvement in productivity

Workforce: Total number of workers or who are available for work

 Office professionals: Office professionals is an individual who oversees the running of an organization, plan, coordinate and oversees the various organizational functions which are performed by the other employees at the company.

Office: Literally speaking an office is any given place where information is received, storing, recorded, rearranged, retrieved and kept for future references.

Organization: Organization is the rational coordination of the activities of a number of people for achievement at some common explicit purpose or goals, through division of labour and function and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility.

Motivation: Olatunle (2003) described motivational s all those line striving conditions derived as wishers, desire, drive etc it is an intane state that activate or moves and direct behaviour toward goals. “Human motives are based on needs whether cautiously or unconsciously felt.”

Motivational tools: Motivational tools are those things put in place the employees (office professions to force the behaviour of workers out. Motivational tools are those tools that enable the managers to work effectively.




This chapter present the summary of the study, conclusion reached on the basis of findings of the study and recommendations.

5.1    SUMMARY

The study was to find out motivational tools and the productivity of office professionals, different books relating the topic where viewed to enable the researcher to investigate motivational tools and the productivity of office professionals.

Four (4) research questions were designed to guide the study. One hundred and thirty six (136) questionnaires were administered to the respondents and one hundred and thirty (130) copies were completed and returned. The statistical methods used in analyzing the questionnaires were mean scores and standard deviation.

The data that were collected and analyzed were used in ensuring the research question and making conclusion based on which recommendations were made.


Based on the findings in relation to the research questions analyzed and interpreted. The researcher wishes to drawn the following conclusions. The questionnaire of motivation is an issue of great importance which confirmed by the findings which disclosed that motivation is a necessary tools that facilitate the integration of any office professionals in an organization.

Based on the findings there is a need for management to always motivate or introduce policies that will motivate their office professionals in order to increase productivity. Motivated workers or office professionals are always working to increase productivity.

The management of the organization should try and encourage their workers or office professional to always accept responsibilities without the fear of higher challenges that might be encountered. Office professionals that are not motivated have negative effect on the organizational growth.

Finally there is a need for management to motivate their office professionals especially those that are hardworking and show interest on job in order to mention and kept to increased productivity in an organization.


Based on the findings and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations are made:

-    From the study conducted, the employers should try to consider individual differences to have a source for the particular type of motivation that best suit their office professionals.

-    Office professionals with low performance should be sent for further training  is the part of motivation to update and improve their performance.

-    It was paramount that employers to labour should motivate their office professionals for increasing productivity.

-    Employers should motivate their office professionals with incentives and opportunities like bonus and overtime allowance, job security, and prompt payment of salary. These will make an employees or office professionals to continue stay and give his/her best for the organization.

-    Employers of labour should see the act of motivation as a way of boosting office professionals morale as well as organizational productivity rather than unguided expenses.


It is the suggestion of this researcher that further studies will be carried out in the following areas to supplement this research findings. These areas include:

-    The role of management in determining the method of motivation.

-    Challenges of motivation

-    Strategies for motivating an office professionals

-    Effect of motivation on the productivity of office professionals.




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