BACTERIOLOGICAL AND MYCOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF DOMESTIC WATER IN MALETE COMMUNITY, ILORIN, KWARA STATE
1.1 Background of Study
Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability (Kulshreshtha, 2008). A report, issued in November 2009, suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand will exceed supply by 50%.
Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture (Baroni et al., 2007). Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities (such as oil and natural gas) and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers, lakes, and canals. Large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances; as such it is widely used in industrial processes, and in cooking and washing. Water is also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, and diving.
Not only quality but also quantity of domestic water supplies impacts on human health. The review by Esrey and Habicht (2006) of 65 epidemiological studies on the health effects of improved water supplies and sanitation facilities indicates that quantity of water is often more important than quality, particularly in heavily contaminated environments.
The human body has 55% to 78% water depending on body size. The percentage of water observed in different body parts are as – muscular tissues 75%, brain contains 90% water, bones 22%, and blood 83%. Since, water is one of the essential components required to our body, it is important to assess the quality of water, which is being used for household activities as well as consumption whether it is actually reliable and safe for health of the consumers. Water portability refers to the quality of water that can be safe for consumption and use with no risk of adverse health effects.
Many studies have been carried out worldwide for checking the quality and safety of drinking water. Kurup et al. (2010) have carried out the microbial and physiochemical analysis of water samples by taking biofilm samples from residential areas in Georgetown, Guyana, discovering the most prevalent species to be Lactobacillus and the least prevalent species to be Salmonella sp. Zvidzai et al. (2007) carried out a study on microbiological assessment of rural drinking water in Zimbabwe.
Smeets et al. (2008) have found that absence of indicator organisms in drinking water does not guarantee microbial safety. Therefore, the water utilities are implementing water safety plans (WSP) to safeguard drinking water quality. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can provide objective quantitative input for Water Safety Plans. Prasai et al. (2007) have evaluated quality of water from different sources (tap, stone spout, tube well and well) from Kathmandu valley by utilizing Heterotrophic plate counts and Coliform counts extensively as basis for regulating microbial quality of drinking water. Regulatory parameters were found to be much above the WHO guideline values. This study showed that most natural water sources are highly contaminated. The detection of pathogenic enteric bacteria in different sources of drinking water depicted for water borne epidemics situations there.
Nagpal et al. (2011) have examined the drinking water for the presence or absence of Salmonella, Citrobacter, E. coli and Vibrio species in the Indira Sagar/Omkeshwar project affected areas and rehabilitation/ resettlement colonies of Sardar project in Madhya Pradesh. Tambekar et al. (2008) revalidated the testing methods for assessing microbial safety of drinking water in the villages of Amrawati district of Maharashtra for using bacteriological analysis with the help of Mutiple Tube fermentation technique to determine most probable number (MPN), Membrane filter techniques, Eijekamn’s test for thermotolerant coliform and Manja’s Rapid hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal contaminations in drinking water.
Hence, it is essential to check the quality of the available drinking water from various sources. In view of this present study was designed to analyze the microbiological quality of the available drinking water from various sources like food stalls, tea stalls, supply water, packaged water to facilitate the examination of level of contamination and finally hence the risk associated with their consumption.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The most common and widespread danger associated with drinking water is contamination, either directly or indirectly, by sewage, other wastes or human and animal excrement (WHO, 2004). About 25 years ago, authoritative estimates indicated that each year some 500 million people are affected by water-borne or water associated disease, and as many as 10 million of these die (Campbell, 2007). In a recent estimate based on WHO reports suggests that 80% of all human illnesses in the developing world are caused by biological contamination (Witt, 2007). Faecal pollution of drinking water may introduce a variety of intestinal pathogens. Their presence being related to microbial diseases and carriers present in the community, which may cause diseases from mild gastroentritis to severe and sometimes fatal dysentry, cholera or typhoid.
Other organisms, naturally present in the environment and not regarded as pathogens, may also cause opportunist disease (WHO, 2004). Ideally, drinking water should not contain any microorganisms known to be pathogenic. It should be free from bacteria indicative of pollution with excreta (WHO, 2004). The majority of the population in developing countries is not adequately supplied with potable water, and thus obliged to use unsafe water for domestic and drinking purposes (Feacham, 2008). Malete, a developing community, is also facing a problem of wholesome water supply.
1.3 Justification of the Research
Water quality performs an important role in the health of human beings, animals, and plants. Surface water quality is an essential component of the natural environment and a matter of serious concern today (Liu et al., 2011). Rivers and reservoirs play a major role in drinking water, agricultural use, fishery, and electricity production, so protection of water quality is a very important issue and it should be kept at acceptable levels (Venkatesharaju et al., 2010). The variation of water quality is the essential combination of both anthropogenic (such as urban, industrial, agricultural activities and the human exploitation of water sources) and natural contributions (such as precipitation rate, weathering processes and soil erosion) (Pejman et al., 2009). Deterioration of lake and river water quality is common in many aquatic systems and potential causes are usually various including point and non- point sources of pollution (Pisinaris et al., 2007).
1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to investigate the bacteriological and mycological contamination of domestic water in Malete community, Ilorin, Kwara State.
The specific objectives of this study are:
a. To determine the total coliform density in domestic water in Malete community.
b. To assess the presence of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis in domestic water in Malete community.
c. To isolate some common fungi in domestic water in Malete community.
1.5 Research Hypotheses (Null)
a. There is no significant difference in the density of coliform in domestic water in Malete community.
b. Domestic water in Malete yielded no significant growth of fungi isolates.
c. Domestic water samples in Malete yielded no significant growth of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Assessment of Water Quality
In a well- balanced aquatic ecosystem, the quality of water plays a critical role between, the organisms and environment which is also extremely important for the health of the ecosystem (Akbulut et al., 2010). In water quality assessment the microbial community has special significance, especially in terms of protecting public health. Coliform bacteria, normally present in intestinal tract of humans and worm- blooded animals, can secondary be found on plants, in the soil and in waters. Although the occurrence of primarily non- pathogenic refers to the presence of disease- causing organisms, they reach natural waters mainly during rainfall, through runoff from agricultural and urban lands, as well as through drainage (Radojevic et al., 2012). Total coliform (TC) is used as a parameter giving basic information on microbiological quality of surface waters (WHO, 2008). For more than a century the presence of coliform bacteria in drinking and recreational waters has been taken as an indication of fecal contamination, and thus of a health hazard. Total coliform and thermotolerant (fecal) coliform (FC) indicator tests are common public health tests of the safety of water and wastewater which might be contaminated with sewage or fecal material (APHA, 2008).
Historically, water has played a significant role in the transmission of human disease. Typhoid fever, cholera, infectious hepatitis, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries and many varieties of gastrointestinal diseases can all be transmitted by water (Rompre et al., 2012).
The qualitative and quantitative composition of fungi in water sediments depend on the origin and composition of waste water sediments, stabilization degree of their organic matter, hydration degree and structure. It was postulated that keratinophilic fungi may be utilized as microbiological indices for the transformations of organic matter of waste water sediments as well as of the degree of their deactivation from the sanitary standpoint (Ulfig and Korcz, 2011).
Drinking water is worldwide the most important single source of gastroenteric diseases, mainly due to the faecally contaminated raw water, failures in the water treatment process or recontamination of treated drinking water (Medema et al., 2013a; World Health Organization, 2013a). Two thirds of the total drinking water consumed worldwide is derived from various surface water sources (Annan, 2010) that may easily be contaminated microbiologically by sewage discharges or faecal loading by domestic or wild animals or whose microbial quality may be endangered by various weather conditions. Surface waters are also widely used for leisure and recreational activities, and thus unintended ingestion of microbiologically contaminated water poses a potential health risk (Cabelli et al., 2007; Asperen van et al., 2008; Stuart et al., 2013; Schönberg-Norio et al., 2014)..