ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF GARLIC AND GINGER EXTRACTS


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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF GARLIC AND GINGER EXTRACTS                                                                   ABSTRACT:      Garlic (Alliums Sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is hardy perennial of Asiatic origin, belonging to the plant family liliaceae. They are grown in northern Nigeria as medicine for both human and animals. They are primarily used for seasoning and also for its medicinal property. Anti-microbial activities of garlic and ginger were carried out using the following microorganisms: staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes.The media used in culturing them was blood agar. When the organism was at exponential phase of growth, extracts of ginger and garlic were made using decoction method. The extracts was placed according to the two demarcated division made on the plates. And was allowed for 24hrs of incubation, then after that, observation was made from the plates. From the observation, it was discovered that both microorganism were sensitive, but their degree of sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus is slightly more than that of streptococcus pyogenes after sub culturing. Conclusively, we encourage or advise people seriously to go more in adding this species in of their meal. This is because; they contain so many active ingredients, which resist the activities of microorganism.TABLE OF CONTENTTitle page DedicationAcknowledgementCertificationAbstractTable of contentCHAPTER ONE1.0    Introduction  1.    Background information and definition2.    Statement of problems3.    Aim and objectives of the study4.    Working hypothesis5.    Limitations of the studyCHAPTER TWO2.0    LITERATURE REVIEWCHAPTER THREE3.    Materials and method 3.1    Methodology3.2    Impregnating the plate with extractsCHAPTER FOUR4.0    RESULTCHAPTER FIVE5.0    DISCUSSIONCHAPTER SIX6.    CONLUSION AND SUGGESTIONREFERENCECHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONAnti microbial substances are materials that have activity against bacteria. There are many plant materials that show anti-microbial activity against bacteria. Example includes garlic and ginger. Garlic and ginger are odourferous plants belonging to a plant family lilacace, with their botanical name Alliums Sativum and Zingiber Officinale respectively. They are grown in northern Nigeria as medicine for both human and animals. They are primarily used for seasoning and also for its medicinal property (Yamoda, 1979).The medicinal potency of garlic and ginger are due to their sulphuric content believed to be responsible for their medicinal property (Blocll et al, 1985). Garlic contains a glycoside, vitamin B, C, and D allisatin II and I. It also contains volatile sulphur oil, which has a vermifugal action (i.e. chemical agent that expels worm).Anti microbial substance show major and minor similarities and difficult to distinguish except through the use of sensitivity techniques that will show clearly those slightest differences among those substances. Anti microbial activities of garlic and ginger could be assayed using the following microorganisms: Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. This microorganism reacts to the slightest change in their environment, they tend to multiply rapidly in a favourable environment but decline if the environment becomes unfavourable.Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive organism, spherical in shapes, oxidize negatively and catalase positive, a non-sporing bacterium that usually occurs in clumps like grape cluster (LAN, 1986)  1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEMSCases of fake drugs abound everywhere in our country today especially in the use of antibiotic. The result has been an increasing level of drug resistance among microorganisms, which were abinitio susceptible to particular antibiotics. Most of these antibiotics have one or more action ingredients, which means that it is easy for microorganism to recognize and destroy or metabolize such active ingredients. However, there are many materials of plant origin that show anti-microbial activity. These materials provide some hope for antibiotic resistance because most of them have many chemical broad sites, which means that it is not easy for microorganism to develop resistance to it easily.1.3    AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYThe aim of this work is to study the anti microbial activities of garlic and ginger extract.The specific objectives of this work are:1.    Measuring of degree of sensitivity of staphylococcus aureus to garlic and ginger extracts respectively.2.    Garlic and ginger extracts mixed together.1.4    WORKING HYPOTHESISHo    Ginger and garlic extracts show anti microbial activity against staphylococcus aureus.H1    Ginger and garlic extracts do not show anti microbial activity on staphylococcus aureus.H2    Garlic and ginger extracts mixed show enhanced anti microbial activity against staphylococcus aureus. 1.5    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYThis project work will be limited only to anti microbial activity of garlic and ginger extracts against staphylococcus aureus. Respectively, garlic and ginger extracts mixed.

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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF GARLIC AND GINGER EXTRACTS


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