MARITAL EXPECTATIONS OF YOUNG FEMALES (A CASE STUDY OF OKE-ERO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KWARA STATE, NIGERIA)
The study examined the marital expectation of young females in OkeEro Local Government. The study focused on extent to which variables such as age, religion, family type and educational status influence marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero L.G.A. The research adopted survey research design method. The population of the study comprised of all the 18,612 young females in Oke Ero L.G.A. Proportional sampling technique was used to select 2% of 18,612 young female in Oke Ero L.G.A which was 378 young female. However to cater for attrition 420 young female in Oke Ero L.G.A. were sampled for the study. Researcher’s structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The instruments were validated by experts. The instrument was administered on the respondents. After which data collected were analysed with frequency counts and percentage for the demographic characteristics of the respondents while inferential statistics of t-test and ANOVA was used to test the stated hypotheses. The study found out that marital expectations of young females in Oke-Ero LGA includes having a lifelong relationship, getting married when they are adult, couple’s supporting family financially, being submissive to their spouses, that their marriage should be fulfilling and satisfying even when raising children and to earn income in order to improve their marital life. The findings led to the conclusion that age, religion, family type and educational status has no significant influence on marital expectations of young females in Oke-Ero Local Government Area. Based on the findings, it was recommended that; young female should be sensitized on the need to be cautious with their expectations so as not to be disappointed; young female should be frequently sensitized about marital life as soon as they are coming of age so as to have them develop realistic expectations; young female should be exposed to other possible marital life so their expectation won’t be solely based on their family type; those in charge of young female education should try to integrate marital education together with their general studies so that their marital expectations will be well shaped and also, religious leaders should ensure they expose young female to ideal marital knowledge so that they can develop beneficial expectations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Research Questions 5
Research Hypotheses 6
Purpose of the Study 6
Significance of the Study 6
Scope of the Study 7
Operational Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTERTWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Marital Expectation 8
Concept of Young Female 10
Physiological and Psychosocial Development of the Adolescent Female 11
Expectation to get married by Young Female 11
Expectation about Marital Role by Young Female 16
Marital Challenges Expected by Young Female 19
Expectation to Cope with Marital Challenges by Young Female 21
Summary of Literature Reviewed 23
CHAPTERTHREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Population, Sample and Sampling Procedure 25
Reliability of the Instrument 27
Procedure for Data Administration and Collection 27
Procedure for Scoring the Instrument 28
Method of Data Analysis 28
CHAPTERFOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents 29
Research Questions 30
Hypotheses Testing 31
Summary of Findings 35
Suggestions for Further Study 41
Appendix I 46
Background to the Study
Sacred vows of marriage according to Ripley, Everett, Worthington, Bromley and Kemper, (2005) are viewed as a permanent sacrifice for some, while others see them as alterable agreements. The word has both religious and secular meanings. Some cohorts (particularly younger ones) view marriage as an “old-fashioned” and outdated tradition, while others believe it to be a critical part of living a fulfilled life and are actively involved in political initiatives to protect the “sanctity of marriage” (Ripley, et.al 2005). Although the meaning assigned to marriage may vary from person-to-person and culture to culture, it is one of the sociocultural activities practiced in all part of the world.
Irrespective of how romantic marriage might be, no marriage is freed from conflict. To worsen it Teachman, Tedrow, and Crowder (2000) claimed half of all first marriages will end in divorce, and one-fifth of those unions will do so within the first five years of marriage (Bramlett & Moshere, 2001). Second marriages according to National Center for Health Statistics, 2002) have even greater divorcing rates with roughly 60% ending their marriage within the first five years. Marital distress and divorce negatively affects adults, children, and the community (Gardiner, Giese, & Parrott, 2004), and the immediate and long-term personal and social consequences of divorce have been well documented in the literature (Amato, 2000; Amato & Cheadle, 2005; Waite & Gallagher, 2000; Wilson, 2005). Hence, more attention is given to factors resulting in divorce and how they can be prevented.
A growing area of research regarding marital divorce has involved identifying risk factors for divorce and incorporating skills for coping with these risk factors into the content of premarital and marital education (Carroll & Doherty, 2003; Halford, Markman, Kline, & Stanley, 2003). At the same time, there has been increased advocacy for marriage preparation as a substantial measure for helping couples identify and potentially reduce risk factors associated with divorce and the important need for couples to participate in such educational services. As Bruhm and Hill (2004) have argued, professionals need to help couples become better prepared for the overwhelming task of creating a happy, healthy, beneficial relationship. Thus, attention needs to be paid to assisting couples in starting their marriage with the skills they need to foster successful relationships.
With the continued attention given to causes of marital distress it was observed that one of the more significant premarital factors contributing to divorce is unrealistic expectations that individuals bring with them into marriage (Sharp & Ganong, 2000). Studies have demonstrated that what partners expect to receive from their relationships affects their assessments of those relationships (McNulty & Karney, 2002). According to Sharp and Ganong, (2000) research on unrealistically high marital expectations suggests that the content of marriage preparation programming should be reality-focused with a
special component on expectations (Risch, Riley, & Lawler, 2003), and how certain marital expectations can both negatively and positively impact couple relationships.
This study is interested in the marital expectations of young female. Several factors have been attributed to shape couples marital expectations some of which include age, gender, parent, ethnicity, religion, peer group and the media among others. Children learn with age and their expectations may change as they grow since they are prone to gain insight into how things work. Gender also influences marital expectations as in most developing countries it was argued that the roles of men in the family are closely linked to the attributes of masculinity (Silvia, 1999) while ladies are expected to spend most of their time at home attending to their children, husband and domestic chores. Parent divorce has been found to influence their children marital expectations for instance Boyer-Pennington (2001) asserted that parental dynamics significantly impact children’s attitudes and beliefs about marriage. Researchers in this area have found that children who witnessed high levels of conflict and dissatisfaction in their parents’ marriage are more likely to become adolescents who report having doubts about their ability to feel satisfied and fully committed to their future marriages (Amato & Booth, 2001).
More recently, the media has been affirmed to create a distorted illustration of real life marriage scenarios. Children often spend more time watching TV than before and most of these children make their movie characters their role model. These children often grow up still clinging to their TV stereotype as a promise of the ideal marriage and family. Not only are these unrealistic beliefs potentially destructive to future relationships, they are also incredibly difficult to alter. Johnson (2011) used a pre-post design to assess the effectiveness of a marital education program. She found that many of her young adult students held unrealistic beliefs about marriage. By presenting information and lectures designed to expose the students to the difficulties that commonly arise in most marriages (sexuality, building intimacy, communication among others), she was hoping to deflate their belief bubble, helping them to adopt a more realistic understanding of what marriage entails. Unfortunately, the individuals who endorsed inflated beliefs about marital bliss on the pre-test responded similarly on the post-test (Johnson, 2011).
Also of importance is that according to Kristina (2015) research has provided support for the idea that an individual’s personal beliefs and attitudes about marriage can be linked to long-term marital functioning. Kristina (2015) claimed Blumstein and Schwartz found that spouses who did not believe in the life-long commitment aspect of marriage behaved in ways that confirmed to their lack of steadfastness. The spouse who held this belief concerning the provisional nature of marriage was more likely to keep a separate bank account and engage in extramarital affairs.
Statement of the Problem
Marriage is an important part of culture in Nigeria. All Nigeria ethnic group celebrate marriage differently but in a glamorous way that could ensure single individuals long for the opportunity to get married too. Despite the glamour associated with marriage ceremony, the distasteful rate at which couples file for divorce in recent times as observed by the researcher makes marriage to be less desired by many. The researcher also observed that rural areas like Oke Ero is now prone to increasing marital dispute and break up which is not the case before. Researchers are increasingly suggesting that couples are at increased risk for dissatisfaction and divorce when marital expectations are too high (McNulty & Karney, 2004; Sharp & Ganong, 2000). While some researchers also suggests that those who expect a great deal of their marriage are more likely to get a great deal from their marriage (McNulty & Karney, 2004). With increasing marital dispute most especially among young couples in Oke Ero LGA, the researcher felt there is strong need to examine marital expectations of young female. Since the female folks are often found the victim of marital dispute. Therefore the researcher examined the marital expectations of young female in Oke Ero Local Government.
1. What are the marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero L.G.A?
2. Is there any age difference in the marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero L.G.A?
3. Is there any difference in the marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero L.G.A based on their family type?
4. Is there any difference in the marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero L.G.A based on their educational status?
5. Is there any difference in the marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero L.G.A based on religion?
1. There is no significant age difference in the marital expectations of young females in OkeEro L.G.A.
2. There is no significant difference in the marital expectations of young females in OkeEro L.G.A based on their family type.
3. There is no significant difference in the marital expectations of young females in OkeEro L.G.A based on their educational status.
4. There is no significant difference in the marital expectations of young females in OkeEro L.G.A based on religion.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to examine the marital expectations of young female in Oke Ero local government. In this study, age, religion, family type and educational background was used to consider whether the young female differed in their marital expectations or not.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study provided empirical information that relates to marital expectations of young female in Oke Ero Local Government. Such information would enable researchers, marriage counselors, parents, young female, therapists and social workers to have a better understanding and conceptualization of marital expectations of young female. Marriage counsellor would benefit from this study as it would enlighten them on whether young female’sexpectations is realistic or not. When parents reflect on the marital expectations of their young female children and society, they will prefer to adopt strategies to enlighten there opinion. Young female would also benefit from this from the counsel they would get when their expectations is shared. Further researchers could fall back on the result of the present study.
Scope of the Study
This study focused on marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero Local Government. Hence, the study waslimited to young females in Oke Ero Local Government. Moderating variables of age, religion, family type and educational background were considered as they affect their marital expectations. Purposive sampling technique was used to select young female in Oke Ero local government while questionnaire was the instrument for obtaining information pertaining to marital expectations of young females in Oke Ero Local Government.
Operational definition of Terms
Marital Expectations: this refer to anything that are assumed to occur during marriage
Marital: this refer to anything relating to marriage
Young Female: this refer to an individual of the feminine gender that is not yet an adult.