The  research  work focuses  on the  public  relations  influence on  customer’  patronage  of   new  generation  banks  (NGBs)  in Enugu .  four  banks  were  selected  Diamond  Bank,  Zenith  Bank.  United  Bank  for  Africa  (UBA) and  ECO Bank .The  main  problem  talked  by  the  study  is  what public  relations  could  do  in retaining  customers  of NGBs  IN SPITE  of  the  problems  bedeviling  the  banking  industry  IN Nigeria.  Some  of  the  objectives  which  the  study  set  to achieve  include:  

i    To  ascertain  the  influence   of  public  patronage  needed  to  enhanced  the profit  motives  of  new  general  banks (NGBs).

ii    To  determine  whether  customers  are  sensitive  to the  attitude  of  bank  workers  toward  them

iii    To  determine  customer’s  perception of  NGBs  and  how such   perception  affect  their  patronage  vis-a –vis  the profit  margin  of the  selected  banks.

iv     To   find  out  what  informed  customer decision to  patronize  of the  NGBs

literature  on punlic  relation  principles , cutomer  relations  and  perception of the banking  indutrsy  were  extensively  reviewed  .  both  primary  and  secondary  data  were  used  for  the  study.  Initially  some  high  ranking  ground  office  staff  were  interviewed  and  the  information  obtained  from  them  were  quite  useful  in pursuing  certain  are  of  inquiry  and  which  later  formal the basis  for  the  construction  of the questionnaire  and  formulation of  hypotheses.  At  last  some  finding  were  made  and  conclusions  reached  some  of the  findings are  that:

i    Customer  are  sensitive  to  bank workers  attitude  towards  them

ii    Customers  have  favorable  image  rating  f  NGBs  studied

iii    Customer  will  encourage  others  to  patronize  NGBs because  of  nice  treatment  they  receive  from  bank  workers  etc.


Title  page                                i

Certification                             ii

Dedication                                 iii

Acknowledgement                            iv

Abstract                                 v

Table  of  content                              vii


1.1    Background  of  study                     1

1.2    Statement  of  problem                     4

1.3    Research objectives                     5

1.4    Hypotheses  formulation                    6

1.5    Significance  of the study                 6

1.6    Scope  of the  study                     6

1.7    Limitations  of  the  study                 7

1.8    Definition  of  operational terms             7



2.1    Modern philosophy  of  public relation s        10

2.2    Public  relations  and Banking in  Nigeria         12

2.3    The Role  of public  Relations  in the  management

    of finance                             14

2.4    The structure  and  the  Role  of  public

     relations  department  at corporate  level  of  Banks     17

2.5    Doing  public relations  at  the   branch  levels  of  banks   19

2.6    Tips  for   frontline  officers  on How  us  Relate 

    with the  customers  and  other   key  publics 

    at  the  Branch  level                          23

2.6  (b)   Selection  and  Training   of  frontline  

people  in  the  Art   of  Quality  customer  service         24

2,7    Customer  Relations                         28

2.8    Objective  of  customers  Relations                 29

2.9    How  to  plan  a  customer  Relations  programme         30

2.10    Who  are  the  customers                        31

2.11    What  the  customers  perceive  is   Reality  to Him     32

2.12    Key  to  shaping  customer  perception             34

2.13    Review  of  ethical  imperative  and  social  responsibility  39

References                                        41


3.1    Research  design                             44

3.2    Population  of the  study                         44

3.3    Sample  and  sampling  technique                 44

3.4    sample  size  determination                     45

3.5    Research  instruments  and  procedure             46

3.6    Reliability / validity  of  research  instrument         47

3.7    Method   of  data  analysis                     47

References                                     48


4.1    Introduction                                49

4.2    Allocation of  questionnaire  and  rate  of  returns         49

4.3    Analysis   of  relevant  questions                54

4.4    Test  of  hypotheses                         63


5.1    Summary  of   findings                         70

5.2    Conclusion                                 71

5.3    Recommendation                             72

5.4    Suggestion  for  further  studies                 73


Appendix   (Questionnaire  )   



To  survive  in the  banking  business  effective  public  relations  is  inevitable.  Gone  are  the   days  when  some  banks  thrived  because  the  customer  had  no  choice. The  situation  today  is  that  the  bank must  convince the  customer, to  attract  his  patronage.  In  other  words,  customer  satisfaction  has  become  a  basis  for  attraction.  Also  in the  banking sector, public  relations  are  most  needed to  boost  customer  relations,  financial  relations and  shareholder  relations  which in turn  will  help  to  build  a sustainable  corporate  image.

However, at  the  close  of  last  millennium  two  major  contradictory  phenomena  occurred  in  Nigeria  banking  sector.  The  older banks in the  sector  were  not  really  performing  their  financial  intermediation roles  to  expectation .  some  of  these  older  banks  that  were deemed  to have  grown solid  in every  confidence and  credibility . this  was  largely  kue  to  liquidity  problems  or   what  has  been  referred to as  financial  distress  in  the  industry  or  better  put  banking  in  business for   ages  and  are  still   strong  to  survive  whatever  vicissitude  this  millennium  might  bring  to the  industry .

The  issue  of  public  relations  was  regulated to the  background  by  some  banks  prior  to   (during)  the  distress era  of the banking  industry. What   informed these  banks  attitudes  is  largely  due  to  lack  of  proper   understanding  of  what public  relations  stands  for  and  its  principles. Another  glaring  factor  that  has  been  ascribed  to this  ill attitude  is  that  PR is  being  misconstrued to  mean  the  same  thing  as  advertising  , publicity  or  marketing. And  because  f this  misconception, public  relations  activities  are not  giving  adequate  attention  where  they  exit  in  such  organization. It  is  unfortunate  thing  that  some  claim  that  they   do  not  use  public  relations, some  even  pride  themselves  on the  fact   they  do  not  need  public  relations  though  in   such  banks  its  easy   to  spot  public  relations  in their  daily  operations.

Consequtly  a  number  of  banks  dubbed  ‘New  Generation  Bank  (NGBs)”  sprang  up  within  the  same  period  when   the majority  of  the  old  generation  banks  were  distressed  o  meet   the  banking  needs  of the  masses  and  have  remained  on  the  scene  till date. The  contradiction  here  stems  from  the  fact that  while  the  distressed  banks  could  not  survive  the  stiff  central  bank  guidelines  and  the  ever  rising  inflation in the   amid  acutely  low  customer  patronage, the NGBs  have  managed  to  remain afloat  even  in the face  of  more  stiff operational  climate.

 The  advent  of  new  generation  banks  and  finance  houses  and  the  consequent  cut-  throat  competition call for  effective  public  relations as  an  augmentation  strategy. Otukere Ubani (1996: 201)  remarked  that “this  competition grows keenest  as the  banks  make  planned  efforts  to  day  off the  central  bank’s  list  of  distressed  banks, which  may  sign  at  the  end  of   the   road  for  them”.  Adikwu (in  Nwosu, 1990:265) may  therefore  be  right  when  he  muted the  idea   that  “the  continued  success of  commercial  banks  will  reflect  broadcast  range  of  profitable  financial  services  to  the  greatest  number  of  people”.

Comparatively, there is  a big  gap  between  the  way  the  old  generation banks  and  new  generation banks  understand  and  apply  public  relations. The customers  relations, financial  relations  and  shareholder relations  practices./strategies  of the  old generation  banks  are  weak  compared  to the  new  generation  banks  give  their  liquidity   rations, customers  patronage  and  innovativeness in product  conceptualization and  product/ service  delivery,  we  should  remember  that it  is  the  good  will  of the  customers  that  keep  the  banks  afloat, .  the  question  now  is, “how  do   banks  apply  customer  public  relations  in the  major   industry” Nwosu  (1996:124) has  an  answer.  He  asks:

How  are  your  customer  alter-market  service ?

Are  you  a ‘kick  and  go” entity  or  do  you  have

“after  sales”  or  follow  up  polices  in  the

Interest  of  your  customers?  How  are  your

Trade  relations ? Are  you  a cheat  or  swindler ?

The  way customers are  treated  matter  a lot.   The  pre  and  post   service  attitude  should  not   dffe.  It  is  detrimental  to  maltreat  the  customer  just  because  you have  got  what  you  wanted  from  him. What  about   tomorrow  ?  the  trade  character and   the method   of  doing business must  be  positive. Infact  the post  market  service  attitude  should  encourage  the  customers  to  come  bank  by  giving  an impression  that  lasts. The  information  the  banks  transmits  to the customer  and  the  manner  of  doing  so,  must  communicate  concern  for the  customers. The  concern  must infact  start  at  the  reception  and security  points.

In  trying  to  achieve  all  these,  salesmanship  skill is  necessary.  Defined  by  Ifezue  (1999:31) “as  the  ability  to  interpret  product  and  service  features  in terms  of  its  benefits  and  advantage  to  the  buyer, to persuade  and  motivate  him  to  buy  the right  kind  and    quality  of  product, “it  can  be  used  to  inform  and  educate  the  market”.  This  is the only  way to  clear  the  negative  perception, which  many   people  have  about  the  banking  industry. With  the  emergence   of many  new  and  sophisticated  banks  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  stake  is  high  for  operators  in Nigeria  . but   with  good  customers  public  relations, the  fear  of  survival   is  allayed.


It   is  n established  fact  that public  relations  pervades  all   sphere  of  bank  business, but  how  the  principles, strategies  are  being  used  to  achieve  corporate  goals  especially  customer’s  patronage  agitate  our minds . the  concerning  point  in  public  relations  is  that  it  involves building  and  maintaining  public  confidence  in a  organization by  so  doing achieve  corporate objective  through sustained  customer  patronage. The fact  that  the banking  business  in Nigeria  and  indeed, elsewhere, is  highly  competitive  today  more  than  ever,  therefore,  it  is  imperative  therefore,  that  operators  in the  industry  should   perceive  public  relations  as “ a  social   philosophy  of  management”  which  according  to Edeani (Ibid: 265) “assigns  pride  of place  to the  needs  and  well  being  of the  organization’s  public , with  the  understanding  that  when  first  consideration  is  given  to the  interests  of the public   in this  way, the organizations own  interest  will ultimately  be   fully  and  satisfactorily  served”.

In the  light  of the  highly  competitive  commercial  climate  and  given  that  bank’ prospects  are  not  only  adequately  informed  but  also  actively  involved  in whatever  decisions  they  have  about  choice  of  banks, it  is  germane  that  bank  operators  should remain  in business  by  striving  to  first , win  customer’s  sympathy  through  effective  public  relations .

Based  on the  problems  of  our   research, the  following  questions  arise:

1    Are  there  any  positive  differences  in NGBs  performance  as  compared  to the older  banks; is  it  as a  result  of PR  inspired  patronage ?

2    How  do  the  public  relations  initiatives  of the  NGBs  determine  whether  they  are  patronized  by  the  customers  or  not ?

3    What  is the  specific  influence  of the  public  relations  on customers  patronage ?

4    Does  good  cashiers/ customer  relations  influence  good   customers disposition towards banks.


The  objective  of the  study  include:

1    To  find  out  if  there  is  a positive  difference in NGBs performance  compare  to the  older  banks as a  result  of  PR inspired  patronage. 

2    To  determine  whether NGBs  are  patronized  by the  customers  or  not  because  of  their  public relations  initiatives.

3    To  determine  whether  good  cashier/ customer  relations influence  good  customer  disposition  towards  banks.

4    To  ascertain  customer’s  perceptions of NGBs  and  how  such  perception  affect  their  patronage  in terms  of the  margin  of  the  selected  banks


1    Good  cashier/ customer  relations  influences good  customer  disposition towards  banks

2    Customers will  patronize NGBs  if  they  perceive  that   they  have  effective  customers  relation  programme.

3    Customers  will  encourage  other   to  patronize  NGBs   where  they  are  satisfied  with  bank’s  services.


 The  study  is  significant  , as  it  will  benefit  the  entire  banking  sector,  especially  commercial  banks  and  customers.  The banking  sector  through  the  findings  of the  study  may  be  able  to  determine  better  ways  of  adapting  their  products  offerings   to the  perceived  needs  of the customers  by  adopting  sound  customer  relations  strategies .  The  banks  used  in this  study as  well  as  other  will  by  findings  of the study  develop  better  customer  service   that  help in reducing  the  incidence  of  bank  failures.  Consumer  confidence  in the  banking  industry  will  also  be  restored.


 The  scope  of the   study  is  centered  within  the  confines  of the  influence  public  relations  has  on  customer’s  patronage  of  new  generation  banks  in Enugu. Therefore, the  study  researcher  may   not  go  beyond  studying  banks  in Enugu  metropolis .

1.5    Limitations  to the  study

To do  adequate  justice  to  a  research  of this  nature  would  have   required  enormous  expenditure of  time  and money  on the  part  of the  researcher,  at  least  to be  able  to visit  the  major NGBs  in Enugu  and  environs.  Both  time  and  financial  resources  were  limited,  thereby  constituting  a major  constrains  on the  execution  of the  project.


In  course  of  this  study  terms  will  be  used  and  they  require  operational  definition  to  suit  the  context  in   which  they  are  used. Some  of  these  terms  include:

Financial  products: These   are  products / services  banks  offer  to  their  customers  some  of   them  have  no physical  attributes  unlike  tangible. They   come  in different  forms/categories  namely  savings,  loans  money  transfer  categories , etc.

Product offering: The benefit   to  be derived  form  the  product  being  offered  to  the  market.

Competition: Existe4nce  of  rival  products  or  service  within  the  same  market   (direct  competition)

Consumer  satisfaction:  Satisfaction  of  a consumer’s  want  is  an  essential  part  of the  marketing operations.  Fundamentally,  a person  buys (acquires)  a  product  or  service  for the  satisfaction  it  will  provide.  This  means  tangible  or  intangible  ( as  indeed     will  be  the  want’) providing  a  product  that   gives  consumer  satisfaction  is  the  aim  of  the  marketing  concept .

Public  relations: This  means  winning   friends , keeping  them,  and  influencing  them, as  well  as   other. It  also  the  process  of  assessing   consumer  wants, establishing  communication, fostering  good  will  so   that  the  consumer  wants  or  needs  can  be  profitably  satisfied.


Adikwu, M.A  (1990) “improving  Banks’ profitability  through  public                      relations And  marketing  in Nigeria”  in                          Ikechukwu E. Nwosu  (ed)  mass  communication                      and  National  Development  perspective  on                      communication  environments  of  development  in                 Nigeria, Aba: frontier publishers .Ltd.

Benett, Peter D. (ed) 1998)     Dictionary of Marking  Terms .

Chicago American Marketing  Association Edeani, David O. (1996)        “public  relations  as an  intrinsic  part  of                         marketing  management” in Ikechukwu E.                         Nwosu and  Uchenna  Ekwo  (eds). Mass                          media  and  marketing  communication:                         principles, perspective  and  practices,                         Enugu : Though  communications publishers

Kotler, Philip (2000)        Marketing  management, New Jersey:                         prentice  Hall  inc



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