Title page




Table of contents


1.1 Introduction of the study 1

1.2 Statement of the problem 7

1.3 Aims and objectives of the study 10

1.4 Scope of the study 12

1.5 Significance of the study 14

1.6 limitations of the study 15

1.7 Definitions o relevant terms 16


2.1 Concept of business organization 21 

2.2 Types of business organization 24

2.3 Concept of promotion 27

2.4 Importance of promotion to an organization 30

2.5 Promotion tools 34

2.6 Rationale for the use of promotion tools by business organization 37


3.0 Research Methodology 39

3.1 Definition of population 39 

3.2 Sampling procedures 40

3.3 Sample size and distribution 43

3.4 Research design 48

3.5 Method of data collection 49

3.6 Sources of data collection 52

3.7 Types of data collection 54

3.8 Validity and reliability 57 


4.1 Brief history of the case study 59

4.2 Data presentation and analysis 61

4.3 Discussion of findings 69



5.1 Summary of findings 71

5.2 Conclusion 73

5.3 Recommendations 74

References- 77  



The concept of promotion of a particular product or service by a firm or organization is to create awareness of the product or service in order to promote sales of the product. Business activities all over the world whether those engaged in production of goods or those that render services, all have objectives to achieve that is how their products or service get know to the consumer. This is done through promotion.

Promotion is any communication activity whose purpose is to move forward a product or services. Promotion provides the stimulus upon which sales progress is based on. Without promotion, business remain stagnant, therefore, wealth and expansion of any business comes from promotion, equally any expansion on introducing promotion, equally any emphasis on introducing promotion to business also parallel with sales and expansion of the business.

Through promotion, an organization attempts to influence the sales of its products or services by increase the quality, the price on a contribution of both to enhance its public image. Business men know that is a better product is produced, hence the needs for effective and efficient promotion.

In any organization, the level of promotion and types of promotion incurred into the business is highly incomparable to one another. Promotion is the only way to ensure survival in a technical market, to maintain the economy. High volumes of sales can only be achieved through the use of promotional tools like advertisement, sale promotion, public relation and personal selling due to the fact that industrial markets are usually well defined, the industrial goods manufacturer can make very good use of direct mail advertisement such as postal advertisement consisting of letter and often sales literature, directly, aimed at specific prospective purchases.

Although, the sophisticated use of the computer enables direct mail techniques to be applied to consumer market, success rated are generally lower than industrial marketing. This is partly because of the difficultly in consumer markets of identifying the prime target audience and partly because costs continue to escalate making direct mail, techniques non-viable for low value items.

Nestle Nigeria plc, is association with the company which has been voted as the larger food company in the world, renowned for its top quality production, nestle Nigeria plc began simple ding operation in Nigeria in 1961 and has today grown into a leading food manufacturing and marketing company.

It is a publicly quoted company existing since 1978 on the Nigeria stock exchange. 43% of its equity is owned by Nigeria share holder while 57% is owned by nestle S.A of Switzerland, the company’s head office and registered office is located at ilupeju Lagos state.

Nestle Nigeria plc is the food beverage industry and its stated objectives is to satisfy the requirement of consumers with high quality food products, mainly before processing agricultural raw-materials into product long shelf life, adopted to the tastes and food habit of the consumer.  

The company’s manufacturing facilities are located at Agbara industrial estate in ogun state, which have been design in line with modern manufacturing methods ensuring efficient production of the various product being manufactured infant and deistic products like beverages and culinary product.

A fully integrated plant producing concentrated sorghum mail extracts has been built and commission at its AGBARA site with the assistance of its technical adviser nestle Nigeria plc, at Switzerland. The company also produces hydrolyzed protein-mix using local raw materials.

Nestle Nigeria plc aims at optimizing its long term viability and has available to its physical skilled human resources, high quality product, and high standard of integrity, efficient management and access to the technical adviser. They prompt their products through advertisement, sporting adviser, exhibition etc. nestle Nigeria Plc often sponsor secondary schools and primary School by organization. All secondary school basket ball competition and all primary school football. 

Nestle Nigeria Plc promotes its product through exhibition. They provide an excellent opportunity both for making prospective customers can be convinced of a products performance an d valve to their business by reading about successful application in competition organisation

They also promote their product through selling. Selling industrial goods usually requires a different emphasis by the salesman. The salesman makes for fewer calls than customer goods, say two or three times per day as opposed to ten or more, he spends a lot of time with each customers.           


The Nigeria economy has been unstable since late 1981 due to oil guilt. This had an adverse effect on all the fact of the economy. The more the federal governments try to caution the effect of the unfavorable development with one form of policy or the other. So there is need to find a way out.

Since the early 1960 commitment to forecasting in organization at all types has grown steadily as several factors have stimulated interest in the field. One of such factors is the need for management to deal with on increase uncertain environment as that of manufacturing company like nestle Nigeria plc. Forecasting allows operations managers to resource from one product and the other increase.

Management as a subject and planning as its instruct are faced with some problems which curtail its effectiveness. These include all the activities and factors that do allow smooth running of management which may include the following;

I. Political instability 

II. Future uncertainty and lack of communication

III. Lack of commitment by managers

IV. Poor mental ability of planners and managers

V. Lack of expert and trained and experience personnel.

POLITICAL INSTABILITY: the instability in our present day government has proved a great problem and affecting the smooth running of business activities in our country.

FUTURE UNCERTAINTY AND LACK OF COMMUNICATION: it could be somehow difficult and risky to forecast with certainty and assurance what the future holdings. The world is dynamic and changes every now and then this brings about seasonal changing in planning and management.

LACK OF COMMITMENT BY MANAGER: many managers and supervisor pay lips services to plans and management which eventually result in lack of support and good devotion or time, skills and knowledge on the part of workers and the manager.

POOR MENTAL ABILITY OF PLANNERS AND MANAGERS:  This is as a result that many planners and managers are mentally poor and are not capable of determine goals for the organization they could not easily execute planes and propels effort to achieve it.

LACK OF EXPERT AND TRAINED AND EXPERIENCED PERSONNEL: Management as a whole cannot be fully run effectively and smoothly without help of skill, trained and expert in the field.

From all that has been started above, it is crystal clear that a study on forecasting is of great importance to most managers.


This study is basically on the significance of promotion to business organization which involves:

i. To help to show information on how people get to know the company for patronizing with particular activity adopted by the company.

ii. To show information on which of the promotional tools to be used frequently by the company and effectiveness and efficiency of promotion on the company.

iii. To show the uncertainly and changes since use operate in dynamic societies. To make management function to be effectively done.

iv. To show the importance of promotion in an organization.

v. To show the formulation of plans and policies and making decisions to effect the plans and made it complete.

As a researcher of this topic, the researcher’s aim and objective is to expose me to many roles and promotion in an organization, and to know the feasibility study of business because one day I might be an entrepreneur.


The scope of the study simply means the area of coverage of the study. The scope of this will be directed towards;

i. Conceptual scope

ii. Industrial scope 

iii. Territorial scope

iv. Time scope


Conceptual scope has to do with the subject matter that the research covers. The conceptual scope this study will focus on 

i. The relevance

ii. The significance of sales promotion to product sales in the nestle plc market.


Industrial scope implies specification of the industry of the study. As far as this research is concerned, the industrial scope are the firm nestle Nigeria in the area specified that is nestle Nigeria plc.


The territorial scope is the land area; area within which the study covers the territorial scope of this research will be within Lagos state.


This study cover the period of writing this project that is second semester 2014/2015 session. The time scope shall also focus on the depth of the data to be collected on the study.

However, in this research the time scope shall be limited to a decade (10 years) of the operational years.


The significance of the study cannot be ruled, the study deal deeply on the effectiveness of the promotional tools used in nestle Nigeria plc, limited ILUPEJU LAGOS state such as making the target market aware of the existence of particular product or services.

The study also covers the major promotional tools likes advertising selling publicity and sale promotion and also to know promotion tools have significance effect on the products.

The study is more important to know when the hand of buyer, to know if the price displayed or imposed on product service in nestle Nigeria plc compete with other competitors.

The study helps the company to improve quality of product personal selling which seems to be a never ending process; it also helps the customers to have more knowledge about the company’s product or service rendered.

Finally, the study serves as a mean of communication to the customers and the entire community.


There are inhibiting factors that have narrowed down this study. The first is that of time constraint. This research would have been more successful than this but research would have been more successful than this but there was no sufficient time for the effective study of this research.

Secondly, financial constraints, this stands as a big barriers as a lot of money were required in gathering relevant data which could have jeopardize the full success of this study. Yet with the assistance of parent, family.

Lasting, data problem, the response o9f manufacturing were not encouraging in terms of release of data. They says they cannot release some data for company protection and the perfect image of their company. Some did not even welcome question regards to their company.


Every organization is made up of human and physical resources. Promotion is the most prestigious accolade for every organization.

The relevant terms of this project is promotion, business, business organization section.

Promotion is one of the market mix, element or feature and a term used frequently in marketing. The marketing mix includes the four P’S

i. Price

ii. Product

iii. Promotion

iv. Place

According to ABDUL RAHEEM, I (2002) define promotion as raising customer awareness sales and creating brand loyalty. Promotion is also found in the specification of five promotional mix or promotional plan. 

These elements are personal selling, advertising, sales promotion direct marketing, and publicity.

A promotional mix specified how much attention to pay each of the five sub-categories and how much money to budget for each.

A promotion plan can have a wide range of objectives including sale increase, new product acceptance, and creation of brand equity positioning, competitive retaliation, or creation of corporate image. Fundamentally, there are three basic objective of promotion these are;

i. To present information to customers as well as other.

ii. To increase demand.

iii. To differentiate a product.

There are different ways to promote a product in different areas of media promoters use internet advertisement, special events, endorsement, and newspaper to advertise their product. Many times with the purchase of a product there is a incentive like discounts (i.e coupons), free items, or a contest. This method is used to increase the sales of a given product. Promotion are also held in physical environment at special event such as concept, festivals, trade shows, and in the field such as in grocery or department stores interactions in the field (i.e grocery and department stores) , allow customers to purchase the brand or product immediately. The interactions among the brand and the customers and performed by brands in physical environments.


According to BABATUNDE .J. (1991), Define business organization is an individual or group of people that collaborate to achieve certain commercial goals.

Some business organizations are formed to earn income for owner. Other business organization called on profit, are formed for public purposes. These businesses often raise money and utilize other resources to provide or support public programs.


An organizational structure reflects that shared values within the organization that impact employee’s moral, communication and ultimately, since companies use formal process and activities to promote team work. 

However, much of an organization unique culture company’s structure involves through informal channels for example, a company’s culture can be affected by the way informal encounters.  



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