THE ASPECTS OF GUNGANCHI NOUN PHRASE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
List of Symbols/Abbreviations viii
Table of Contents x
CHAPTER ONE: Gunganchi Language and its Speakers
Geographical Location of the Gunganchi Speaker4
1.4 Genetic Classification 7
1.5 Scope and Organization of the Study 9
1.6 Data Collection 10
1.6.1 Data Analysis 11
1.7 Review of the Chosen Theoretical Framework 11
1.7.1 X-Bar Theory 14
1.7.2 Projection Principle 15 1.7.3
Principle of Head Parameters16
1.7.4 Case Theory 18
1.7.5 Government Theory 20
The Binding Theory21
The Bounding Theory23
CHAPTER TWO: The Phono-Syntax of Gunganchi
Sound Inventories in Gunganchi26
Syllable Structure of Gunganchi Language26
Consonants Sounds in Gunganchi Language27
Description and Distribution of Consonants Sounds in Gunganchi Language28
Vowel Sounds in Gunganchi Language38
Description and Distribution Vowel Sounds in Gunganchi Language
2.1.5 Tone System in Gunganchi Language40
2.2 Syllable Structure of Gunganchi Language 48
2.3 Lexical Categories in Gunganchi Language 53
2.3.1 Nouns 54
220.127.116.11 Proper Noun 55
18.104.22.168 Common Noun 55
22.214.171.124 Concrete Noun 55
126.96.36.199 Abstract Nouns 56
188.8.131.52 Countable Noun 56
184.108.40.206 Uncountable Nouns 56
2.3.2 Pronoun 57
220.127.116.11 Interrogative Pronouns 58
Phrasal Categories in Gunganchi Language61
Phrase Structure Rules in Gunganchi Language73
CHAPTER THREE: Gunganchi Noun Phrase
Compound Sentence in Gunganchi79
Functional Classification of Sentences in Gunganchi Language 84
Basic Word Order88
The Noun Phrase93
Noun Phrase and the Head Parameter93
Noun Phrase as a Single Noun Head95
Noun Phrase as a Pronoun97
Modification of Noun Phrase by Determiners98
Modification of Noun Phrase by Adjectival Phrase101
Modification of NP by Prepositional Phrase103
Modification of Noun Phrase by Complementizer Phrase 106
NPs Joined by the Conjunction110
Functions of Noun Phrase in Gunganchi112
Noun Phrase as Subject of the Predicate113
Noun Phrase as Apposition of Subject117
Noun Phrase as a Direct Object of the Verb in a Sentence 121
Noun Phrase as Indirect Object of the Verb124
Noun Phrase as a Compliment of Preposition128
CHAPTER FOUR: Transformational Processes in Gunganchi Language
Transformational Processes in Gunganchi133
Direct Object NP Focus156
Indirect Object NP Focus157
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
Gunganchi Language and its Speakers
In this chapter, we shall investigate the Gunganchi language and its
speakers, historical background of Gunganchi speakers sociocultural profile of the people, scope and organization of the language, theoretical framework, data collection method and analysis, as well as the review of the chosen theoretical framework.
Language is the fabrics that ties every member of the society together, which serves as an instrument used by man for specific and distinguishable purpose. More interestingly, linguistics has been the discipline that studies human languages solely for the purpose of preserving them most especially preventing them from going into extinction. Therefore, this long essay has been meant for that purpose to study Gunganchi so as to explore the possibilities of saving it from dying.
Indeed, the focus of this research work is to shed light on the various structure, as well as the function of noun phrase in Gunganchi language. Thus, the area covered in this research are brief discussion on some phonological concepts such as sound, tonal, and syllable inventories of the Gunganchi language, as well as some syntactic concepts which are phrase structure rules’ lexical categories, basic word order and sentence types. Also, the research work addresses some transformational processes attested in the language, and these include focusing, question formation, refletivization and passivization etc.
The Gunganwa people i.e. speakers of Gunganchi are commonly based in Kebbi state, the home of Argungu international fisting and cultural festival which came into existence in 27th August 1991. It was carved out of the former Sokoto
state with it’s headquarters in Benin Kebbi. Historically, Gunganwa people came from an Island called “Gungun”, they got the name “Gunganwa” from “gungun” which means water, and “ganwa” means people, who were surrounded by water. In Hausa language any land that is surrounded by water is called “gungun”. However, Gunganwa is an adopted name for the Bareshe people and their Hausa neighbouring people. There are discrepancies among the various accounts on the historical origin of the Gunganwa people. A tradition reveals that Gunganwa warrior called Kachira who allied himself with the Hausa Soldiers that migrated to the one extreme north and eventually settled with his co-fighter in the present day Yauri town. Another contradictory version reveals that, Sangoni warriors who came from Mali to exercise territoria control eventually settled in Yauri Local Government area of Kebbi state and part of Lopa and Loru gunganwa neighbouring areas.
Another legend states that, they are hunters who migrated from Kastina state on an hunting expedition. From the foregoing it is crystal clear that there are multitude accounts on the ancient legendary of the Guganchi people. The Yauri local government has an estimated population of females and males, Male (38,205) while females is (36,709) with the total population of (74,916). They
have another name called among themselves which is ‘turesha’. This name is only used by the native speakers. They enjoy tropical climate which is characterized by two major temperating. The hot and cold temperature. The vain begins in May/June and ends in October with the heaviest fall occurring in July and August. The extremely cold harmattan period usually accompanised by clusty wind and fog of alarming intensity, prevails in November, December and January.
Geographical Location of the Gunganchi Speakers
The Gunganchis are located in Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State between the landscape of Niger to the west and Sokoto to the north. They pread alluvingly over a vast expanse of Sahehian land of approximately 36.229 square kilometers representing 3.9% of the total land area. The Gunganch is occupying an area between the latitude 100 and 130 15’ N and ongitude 30 30 E. The total population of the speakers is conservatively put at 2.766 people in the 2007 census.
Every community has it’s distinct ways of life. The way people eat, what they wears, their mode of marriage, etc. differ in various societies. The
Gunganchi people. Just like every community have their distinct culture and tradition.
Gunganchi people are dominantly farmers and pre-dominantly fisher-men, they practice both subsistence and commercial forms of farming but they are majorly on cultivation of land, growing of crops for the sustainability of their household. They also engage themselves in fishing using a fishing cage – called “Suru”.
Gunganchi tribe are mostly Muslim, they also have few pagans and idol worshippers. These religion diversities make the people of Kebbi state live in peace with one another.
The factors determining the building of houses in Gunganchi land are war and farming activities. The Gunganchi people used to live in huts. The major building structure is the hay and the mud building. Those using mud for their building are the civilized among them. Till date, they are still using mud in building their houses.
Presently, there are three kinds of marriage practices in Gunganchi land: Ilamic, Christian and traditional marriage, but, in the olden days, the dominant one was Islamic marriage. Gunganchi people practice both the monogamous and the polygamous forms of marriage. If someone gives birth to a baby girl, a man will visit the birth place and show his interest. So, when she grows up, they will farm for her parents and do everything to please them. Moreover, the boy will go along with Guinea corn but no bride price is needed.
They also celebrate a number of festivals among them is ‘Idembu’ which is called the millet festival. During this festival, goat’s blood or any other bush animal is used to sacrifice to their higher god called ‘Ijigo’. This festival brings all Gunganchi speaking communities together.
Before the advent of the western education, the Gunganchi people had a way of teaching moralities, respect and skills within their communities. The education of their children is of uttermost importance because, they believe that an uneducated mind will definitely die as an ignorant, and will be problematic to
himself and the community in general. They thereby teach and impart moral knowledge to their children right from birth, and as they grow, they provide an avenue of giving them skills training.
In Gunganchi community, they appoint an elderly and respected person as king. The coronation is celebrated in an orderly and elaborate manner. The king them becomes the paramount ruler of the land who presides over the social, economic and cultural of the peoples.
According to Greenberg (1966: 8) African language belongs to various families, and there are four maingroups namely, Niger-Kordofanian, Afroasiatic, Nilo Saharan and Khoisan. The Gunganchi language is said to be classified under the Niger-Congo family, belonging to the group of Kainji. The following diagram (Fig. 1) shows the genetic classification of the language.
Mande Atlantic Atlantic Congo Volta Congo New Benue Congo
Oko Defoid Kainji Idomoid Edoid Platoid
Western Kainji Eastern Kainji
Kamuku Kaiji Lake Reshe (Gungawa) Kambari Bassa Lopa
1.5.1 Genetic Classification of Gungawa (Fig. 1)
Source: Ross Jones (1992).
Scope and Organization of the Study
In this research, the general overview of noun phrases in Gunganchi language will be discussed. This research work is divided into five chapters of relevant aspects of the theory of syntax.
The first chapter is the introductory segment which includes the general background of the study of the speakers, the historical background, socio- cultural profile, genetic classification, the scope and organization of the study, the data collection method, data analysis and the brief review of the chosen theory are also examined.
The second chapter, shall focus on basic phonological concepts such as sounds inventory, tonal inventory and syllable inventory, the basic syntactic concept such as phrase structure rules and lexical categories. The third chapter will focus on the main aspect of the study, which is the noun phrase of Gunganchi i.e. the structure of noun phrase and their functions in the language. The fourth chapter, will examine the transformational processes such as focusing, question formation, passivisation and reflexivization etc. which are attested in the language. The last chapter of this research work, which is chapter
five, will present a brief summary of the whole research findings, draw conclusion and recommendations based on such finding.
This research was made possible through the help of bi-lingua language helper. However, the Ibadan four hundred word list and some sentence construction were used to extract necessary information from the language speaker. The method of collection was through direct translation from English language to Gunganchi language However, bi-lingual approach was used because the informant speak more than one language which include: English, Gunganchi and Hausa languages. More so, the informant is a native speaker of Gunganchi.
LANGUAGE HELPER (INFORMANT)
Name: Muaza Bagudu Age: 54 years Occupation: Military Officer Address: Kebbi state
Native Language: Gunganchi
In order to have accurate analysis, Ibadan four hundred wordlist with an equivalent meaning in Gunganchi language was used. Also, the frame technique was used, which deals with phrasal and sentential constructions in English language directly translated to Gungachi language with the assistance of the informant. This made it possible to determine the actual underlying form of a word, constituent and possible syntactic classes to which each word belongs to in Gunganchi language.
Review of the Chosen Theoretical Framework
Government and Binding Theory (GB) will be used in the analysis of Gunganchi Noun Phrase. Due to the fact that it brings what is common and constitute the structure of phrase; this theory is a modular deductive theory of universal grammar (UG) which posits multiple levels of representation related by the transformational rule “move alpha” (Sanusi, 1996: 19-21).
Haegman (1991: 13) defined government and binding theory as a theory of universal grammar which is the system of all principles that are common to all human languages. Government and binding theory is otherwise known as principle and parameters theory. In government and binding theory, the
grammar is a continuous interaction between component and sub-theories embodying different principles and parameters.
Sub-Theories of Government and Binding
The core grammar of a given language is derived from the interaction of sub-theories of universal grammar. These sub-theories are inter-related that each of them can account for grammaticality or ungrammatically of any sentence (Horrocks, 1987: 29).
These sub theories are:
1. X-bar theory
3. Government theory
4. Binding theory
5. Bounding theory
6. Theta theory
7. Control theory
The above listed sub-theories are diagrammatically represented below to show the inter-relationship among them.
CASE-THEORY (CASE FILTER)
Fig. 2: Modules of Grammar
(Adapted from Sells (1985) and Cook (1988).
The x-bar theory defines possible phrase structure configurations in language generally. The central notion is that, each of the major lexical categories (noun, verb, preposition, adjectives) is the head of a structure dominated by a phrasal node of the same category e.g. noun: noun phrase; verb: verb phrase (Cook 1988: 32).
Chomsky (1986), in is analysis, says that every maximal projection has a specifier of an XP position, which with the intermediate bar projection serving as the XP’s core. The core consists of the head X0 and the complement which can be a maximal projection itself.
Then, we can say that the maximal projection (x-bar) is another full name for full phrasal category associated with a particular lexical category as the head of that phrase. this theory is represented by this phrase structure rule:
X” which is equal to XP is the maximal projection. It has a specifier position. The X0 is the head of the phrase and it can subcategorise for complement and adjunct.
Chomsky (1981: 29) state that representation at each syntactic level is projected from lexicon, in that they observe the sub-categorization properties of lexical item; projection principle requires lexical properties to be projected to all levels of syntactic representation i.e. a lexical item projects from its zero bar level to one single bar level, which is optional, then to double bar level. The zero bar level is referred to as the core projection level, the single bar level is referred
to as the intermediate projection level and the double bar level is referred to as the maximal projection level.
The illustration is shown below:
X” Maximal projection level
X’ Intermediate projection level
X0 Core projection level
Principle of Head Parameters
Cook (1996: 150) says that, inflectional phrase are built around functional heads, which may contain lexical materials such as morphological ending but are not required to contain lexical material.
The top levels of the sentence have been unified with the rest of X-bar theory. The maximum level of sentence is called inflectional phrase (IP) in X-bar theory.
IP à Spec I’
I à I Comp.
Other functional phrases are: Complementizer Phrase (CP) CP à Spec C’
C’ à C IP CP
Determinal phrases DP à Spec D’ D’ à D NP
Case theory deals with the principle of case assignment to constitutes. Chomsky (1986) assumes that all NPs with lexical content are assigned (abstract) case. Abstract case is usually distinguished from case as an overt inflectional category by the use of an initial capital letter. The basic idea is that, case is assigned under government, the choice of case being determined by the governor in any given example. Government is a traditional notion involving the delimitation of the sphere of influence of a particular category with respect to adjacent categories.
Adjancency is also one of the requirements of case assignment. This is to say that case assignees and case assignors must be contguous with no barrier blocking the discharge of the (abstract) case (Yusuf, 1998). In government and binding (GB) theory, the case are said to be assigned under Government as:
a. Nominative cases – assigned by tensed inflectional
b. Accusative – assigned by Verbs
c. Oblique – assigned by preposition
Nouns or adjective do not assign any case. Furthermore, on the assignment of case, all phrases that have phonetic content must have case or else they are ill formed. This corollary is known as the case filter which is only detachable in the phonetic form. Case filter states that NP without a case assigned should be filtered out.
The case filter in this case says that, any NP without a case assigned should be filtered out. Finally, according to (Cook, 1988: 87) case theory recognizes two case assignments:
a. Inherent case assignment (that is assigned at the deep structure level).
b. Structural/Abstract: case assignment is at the surface structure level.
In essence, government theory deals with the relationship between a head and its complement and it also describes relationships in other sub theories Chomsky (1986: 17) says of an empty category that “A noun-prominal empty category must be promptly category is exempted from government. Therefore, Chomsky defined proper government as: ‘b’ is properly governed by ‘r’ if it governed by ‘r’ and a certain kind of connection holds between ‘r’ and ‘b’. He further said that, ‘r’ properly governs ‘b’, if ‘r’ governs ‘b’ or antecedents governs ‘b’. The configuration is as follow:
In the above configuration, ‘r’ governs ‘b’ and ‘y’ when ‘b’ and ‘y’ are sisters to ‘r’. ‘b’ can C-command ‘b’ i.e. they govern each other. It is obvious that, crucial to the concept of ‘government is the issue of C-commands. It is the
relationship between an element and other elements it is “superior to” but does not dominate.
Government can be recognized if they are adjacent, and adjacent is contiguity i.e. it implies that there must be no blocking between a governor and its governee.
The Binding Theory
According to Malmjaer (1991: 46), “the binding theory is a theory that is concerned or deals with the syntactic domain in which NPs can or cannot be constructed as” co-referential in the sentence”. Binding theory is one of the most important constructs in the system. It is concerned primarily with the conditions under which NPS are interrupted as co-referential with other NPs in the same sentence.
Binding theory is concerned with the categories to be bound and free in defining the domain in which binding takes place (Horrocks, 1987: 2) for the purpose of binding theory,NPs that act as arguments are assumed to fall into one of the following categories:
c. Referential expressions
These are NPs whose reference is necessarily determined by sentence internally and which cannot have independent reference. Reciprocal and reflexive pronouns fall into this class e.g. Emmanuel loves himself.
Himself in this sentence is referring to the subject NP Emmanuel.
Prominals: Prominal are NPs that lack specific lexical content and have only the feature; persons, number, gender and case unlike anaphors. They may either refer to individuals independently or core for to individual name. e.g. Ade says Tolu should be flogged.
Referential expression: This is otherwise know as R-expression. As the name implies, they are noun phrases (NP) with lexical ability here is excluded e.g. Tunji says Bimbo should be sent out Tunji and Bimbo are different persons, even when the same name is used twice, the most natural interpretation is one where two different people are involved.
Bayo said Bayo must be flogged. It must however be admitted that, co- reference here is a possibility, but the sentence so interpreted is stylistically highly marked revealing something of the speaker’s attitude.
The Bounding Theory
The Bounding theory is concerned with the way movement rule (move r) can be constrained (Cook 1996). In essence, it deals with the limitation to be placed on the displacement of constituents by the transformational vale scheme move r. The location from which movement takes place does not have to be ‘adjacent’ to the landing site but it must be ‘subjacent’.
Movement rule within GB theory is assumed to involve An extraction site
A landing site
An intervening gap
Fig. 3: Movement Rule
This is a term that stands for thematic roles and their syntactic realization as specific argument of a predicate. This theory says, “that one argument must correspond to each thematic role and vice-versa i.e. an NP must correspond to each thematic role” Chomsky (1986: 4). Argument, in this context, refers to the noun phrase which is of two types, subject and object noun phrases. The object is further divided into two parts, which are direct and indirect objects. The thematic role is also a role that assigns functions to arguments. The common thematic roles are: agent, patient, goal, location, sources, experience and benefactive.
Control theory is the transformational analysis of sentence with verbs taking infinitival complements that have null subjects understood as co- referential with an NP in the main clause (Horrocks, 1987: 31).
Trask (1993: 62) defined “control as module of grammar that deals with the phenomenon of a verb phrase complement that has no overt subject and consequently interpreted semantically as having some determiner phrase (DP)appearing somewhere within the sentence or an arbitrary (unspecified). Determiners phrase that function as its “subject” or “controller”. A non-overt subject DP of the infinitival clause is technically represented within GB framework by a distinct ‘empty category’ called. PRO.
Riemsdjik and Williams (1983: 132) “the abbreviation PRO has been devised to stand for a phonetically null pronoun that occupies the subject position of infinitives in control theory”..