AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IN NIGERIA: A SUSTAINABILITY APPROACH
Tourism development is most desirable when it is anchored on sustainability for the benefit of present generation without compromising its value for the future generations. Tourism industry, which is regarded as one of the fastest growing industry, if properly planned and managed, could generate huge revenue, employment, and other benefits. However, for this to be realized, it should not remain in the hands of parties with a laissez-faire approach. The focus of this study is Delta State/Nigeria tourism board with an aim to explore and examine the planning processes of tourism in the context of sustainable approach. A qualitative research method is applied to investigate the topic through in-depth interview with staff of Delta state tourism board. The study revealed that the pace of tourism awareness and development are still at its embryonic stage. Furthermore, the study discovered that bureaucratic bottle neck is also hampering the process of planning without considering the sustainability issues. In the meantime, lack of consensus on a general strategic plan was responsible for lack of proper performance of the industry. Recommendations are suggested how to initiate a strategic planning process and its implementation. Limitations and suggestions for further research are also elaborated. TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of Problem 5
Purpose of Study 6
1.5. Organization of the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
An Over View of Tourism 9
History of Tourism 13
Impact of Tourism 15
Types of Tourism 18
Mass Tourism 18
Alternative Tourism 18
International Tourism 22
Tourism in Developed Countries 22
Tourism in Least Developed Countries 24
Issues/Problems in Tourism 26
Challenges of tourism in Nigeria 29
Definition of Tourism 29
CHAPTER THREE: CONCEPT OF PLANNING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 31
Dimensions of sustainability 34
Who Plans Tourism 36
Stakeholders in Sustainable Tourism Development 38
Planning Models 40
Regional Planning Goals 46
Theoretical Framework of the Study 46
CHAPTER FOUR: TOURISM IN NIGERIA 50
Overview of Tourism in Nigeria 50
Nigeria: The land of Ibos, Hausa, Yoruba and other: (I.H.Y.O) 52
Geography of Nigeria 54
The six geographical Regions of Nigeria 56
Nigeria Economy 58
Nigeria’s International Tourism Statistics 60
Nigeria culture 60
Nigeria food culture 61
Some of the Nigeria food culture includes 61
Strange Culture beliefs 62
Chieftaincy Titles 62
Nigeria Resources 63
Nigeria Social Life 63
Institutional Structure for Tourism in Nigeria 65
Tourist Attractions in Nigeria 66
CHAPTER FIVE: METHODOLOGY 69
Research Methodology 69
Sample and Data Collection 71
CHAPTER SIX: DATA ANALYSIS 73
Data Analysis 73
Data Analysis and Interpretation 77
CHAPTER SEVEN DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 87
Implications and Future Research 88
Appendix A. table 1. List of Respondents 100
Appendix B. table 2. Interview Questions 101 CHAPTER ONE
Tourism industry is the biggest and largest industry in the world that is fast growing, tourism right now is a business institution that gives place for events to people when they want to relax or when they are on holiday. However tourism is originally seen as sightseeing and for relaxation, with tourism effect, it basically a way of bringing people together from different part of the word, by mutual interactions, apart from sightseeing and interactions tourism also influences wealth creations and it a means of modifying values and behaviors, with the effects of behavior and values modification it way of enhancing social relationship among the visitors and the locals, this influence gives am impact on societal change, it has been proven by different authors that there is a big empirical evidence that exist between the society and tourism as a whole.
Tourism developments as a multidisciplinary nature influence the culture and other areas of the society (Bhatia, 1993). Tourism as a whole involve the activity of travel from one destination to another, visiting places, lodging in an hotel because tourism provides accommodation for guest and also tour guides, with all these mentioned above tourism industry has gone above buying and selling of gift items and aesthetics.
Tourism industry right now is playing a great role in today’s world economic by contributing greatly to social transformation and the global economic, because of it great impact and influence, tourism has become income and wealth creation for many countries like Dubai, France, America, Hong Kong (Mills, 1983).
According to statista.de the number of international overnight tourist visit to Dubai from 2010 to 2015 grows from 10.16 million to 12.18 million. Most countries like Dubai focus on tourism because of the fast means of generating income to the economic, the government are very involved as well as the locals to create more fascinating destination so that tourist can come and visit. Tourism industry is now a major competitor to the oil sector.
Since 1950s international tourism has been growing rapidly because of high income, good tourist destination, good transports networks, and great leisure time, the UNWTO (2016) gave an insight on how much international tourist has generate income, according to UNWTO (2016) international tourism receipts grew by 3.16% in year 2015 and also international arrival grew by 4.4% increase, for four straight years, international tourism grew more than other sectors like world merchandise trade, with her fast growth, tourism shares in worlds export rise to 7% increase in 2015 which lead to the total international tourism to $1.4 trillion. Remuneration gathered from international tourism on food, drinks, hotel accommodation, shopping, entertainment and other services generate to $1,232 billion in euro it is € 1.110 billion in 2015, and 3.6% increase in exchange rate fluctuations.
Sustainable tourism also play an important role in tourism industry, because is a type of tourism that fulfill or satisfy the needs of the today or present tourist and host
without damaging or jeopardizing the ability of the succeeding generations. By Brundtland (WCED 1987: 43) if an environment is not sustainable, no visitors will like to come to a polluted country. Sustainable development has been proven by different authors that it can be achieved when destinations consider the balance between economic, social and environment of development (Kunz, 2006; Redclift, 2005).
Sustainable tourism and sustainable development have become ambiguous and popular just like ecotourism. Sustainable development as a concept itself helps to recycle waste cause by humans, tourist, host communities and helps in the environment to reduce energy consumption in other to prevent human and natural resources. There are numerous definition by observes and writers who defined it in their own way, and in ways that can be understandable in a simple term, according to some critics, they said some definitions are confusing rather making it clear. John Pezzey (1989)
As Lindberge (1999) and Ashworth (1996) stipulate that, destinations desired should be more knowledgeable and cherished by the tourist is very key, with this, tourism will grow fasts and the significance of socio-cultural, economic and environmental benefits will generates.
Nigeria and other some developing African countries that have weak tourism industries generally have problem of valuable information on tourist resources and areas to give primacy in tourism destination planning, development and marketing (World Tourism Organization, WTO, 1994; Chokor, 1993).
Tourism industries in Nigeria dates back to medieval ages without government intervention witnessed visitors from far and near coming to observe cultural festival, dances and ceremonies etc. Nigeria is the most populated country in African continent with one of the fastest growing economy. Nigeria tourism dwells joy and entertainment for every class as a result of large population and different Mother Nature endowment that could satisfy every one’s appetite.
The contribution of tourism industry in Nigeria with the government intervention cannot be over emphasized. In all over the world, tourism is a money yielding business and is now becoming part of revenue generating sector for the economy. It provides jobs for the local residents thereby increasing the standard of living. Tourism have now become a virtual part of government agenda as more and more hospitality industries spring up in all cities providing relaxation spots to tourist and revenue to the government. They are attracted to Nigeria cultural diversity, scenery and festivals each state of the federation has to offer. It is observed that in 2011 alone, more than 2 million tourist visited Nigeria, the different international church crusades and conferences coupled with foreign investors on business tourism make the bulk of the tourists and spent the equivalent of $3.7 million US Dollars and this is expected to rise by 10% in increase year by year (Dekadt, 1999).
Considering the vast area of tourist attractions in the country and nonchalant or I don’t care altitude of the government sustenance of this “black gold” will be a mirage unless consented effort be made to promote and protect the industry. No matter the endowment of natural resources without the political will of the government and successive governments in the future are needed to sustain and improve the tempo already achieved. In the tourism industry, tourists are the
propelling force that should be well taken care of to enable the spread of hospitability of the country of destination.
Finally, for tourism to succeed in any given environment effective marketing strategies could be improved to achieve the desired result.
Statement of Problem
Several problems have militated against the growth and development of tourist industry in Nigeria. It is quite obvious that since the discovery of oil (black gold) in the 50s, all eyes were only focus on petrol dollar. The easy money from oil which accounted for more than 90% of gross national income, any other sector of the economy were taken for granted. The money from oil was so huge in the 70s that it was said that the problem of Nigeria then is how to spend the money available. Of recent though, tourist industry have been receiving government attention, but the political will to set the ball rolling had been the greatest impediment. In Nigeria, government employment most often, are regarded as a share of national cake as no one is prepared to bake. Most people are employed in government service not that the individual is qualified, but based on Quota system that enable the federating state to bring individuals to fill vacant position not on merit. In Nigeria, federal characters, Quota system, Educational dis-advantaged areas; people with special consideration and Nepotism are some of the qualifications for employment and therefore tourist industry have had its fair share of those mundane considerations that have hindered its growth.
Again corruption have been institutionalized in the country, that without greasing some one‘s arms nothing seem to work. It has made many industries comatose
including tourist industry.
Against this background, it is of note to acknowledge the present administration trying to fight corruption to its knees, but the efforts seem too little to make a difference as it is perceived the fight is targeted against political enemies, and again this may be in part of a result of the corrupt tendencies of both judicial and public officials and unsavory bureaucratic procedures.
Finally, finance is another area of concern. The period of honey moon is over when money was not our problem but how to use it. Some politicians have shamefully siphoned the common wealth of the nation that salaries of over bloated civil service could no longer be paid and woo of tourist industry continue to nosedive to the detriment of the common man.
Another area of concern is none documentation of research materials. A visit to tourism board this researcher could not find a simple tangible literature for use. The office was in bad shape without interest.
Purpose of Study
A study without purpose is aimless and of no useful concrete problem solving result can be achieved. In other to ensure that solutions are derived and recommendation made for future generation in response to research problem, this study is aimed to identify the rate of tourism industry to the economy of Nigeria and mankind, also ascertain whether there are indeed problems militating against the tourism industry, and also tackle the problems of finance that tourism board is facing and to make recommendations in the high of the problem discovered.
Research design which is the combination of a specific strategy for investigating a research problem should be adopted. This research is set to answer a set of research questions by way of data collection, analysis and interpretation. This should be done through qualitative research method by carrying an in-depth interview. In addition, however, some middle level and senior officers of Tourism ministry willing to grant audience and discuss the issue at stake will to be involved for opinion and analysis.
Similarly, the physical observation and enquiry into performance rating of some employees will be interviewed to find whether performance appraisal format is strictly adhered to. Finally, data collected will be grouped into sections for purpose of clarity, grading and analysis.
1.5. Organization of the Study
This study contains 7 chapters in which they are interrelated to each other; the first chapter consists of the introduction, statement of problem, purpose of study and the methodology that the researcher will use to conduct this research.
The second chapter entails accurate information about tourism such as over view of tourism, impacts of tourism, types of tourism, tourism in developed and developing countries.
The third chapter contains tourism planning and sustainability which includes sustainable plan and sustainable model which are vital for tourism strategies in Nigeria
The forth chapter covers tourism in Nigeria which comprises of the country’s
geography, economy, history and culture.
The fifth and six chapters comprise of the methods and results gathered from this research, the method used in this research is qualitative research methods by making use of in-depth-interview; the seventh chapter contains discussion and conclusion..