AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IN NIGERIA: A SUSTAINABILITY APPROACH


AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IN NIGERIA: A SUSTAINABILITY APPROACH

                                                        ABSTRACT:    

Tourism development is most desirable when it is anchored on sustainability for the benefit of present generation without compromising its value for the future generations. Tourism industry, which is regarded as one of the fastest growing industry, if properly planned and managed, could generate huge revenue, employment, and other benefits. However, for this to be realized, it should not remain in the hands of parties with a laissez-faire approach. The focus of this study is Delta State/Nigeria tourism board with an aim to explore and examine the planning processes of tourism in the context of sustainable approach. A qualitative research method is applied to investigate the topic through in-depth interview with staff of Delta state tourism board. The study revealed that the pace of tourism awareness and development are still at its embryonic stage. Furthermore, the study discovered that bureaucratic bottle neck is also hampering the process of planning without considering the sustainability issues. In the meantime, lack of consensus on a general strategic plan was responsible for lack of proper performance of the industry. Recommendations are suggested how to initiate a strategic planning process and its implementation. Limitations and suggestions for further research are also elaborated.                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT    iii

ÖZ    iv

DEDICATION    v

ACKNOWLEDGMENT    vi

LIST OF TABLES    x

LIST OF FIGURES    xi

CHAPTER ONE:    INTRODUCTION    1

    Introduction    1

    Statement of Problem    5

    Purpose of Study    6

    Methodology    7

1.5. Organization of the Study    7

CHAPTER TWO:   LITERATURE REVIEW    9

    An Over View of Tourism    9

    History of Tourism    13

    Impact of Tourism    15

    Types of Tourism    18

    Mass Tourism    18

    Alternative Tourism    18

    International Tourism    22

    Tourism in Developed Countries    22

    Tourism in Least Developed Countries    24

    Issues/Problems in Tourism    26

    Challenges of tourism in Nigeria    29

    Definition of Tourism    29

CHAPTER THREE:   CONCEPT OF PLANNING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT    31

    Dimensions of sustainability    34

    Who Plans Tourism    36

    Stakeholders in Sustainable Tourism Development    38

    Planning Models    40

    Regional Planning Goals    46

    Theoretical Framework of the Study    46

CHAPTER FOUR:   TOURISM IN NIGERIA    50

    Overview of Tourism in Nigeria    50

    Nigeria: The land of Ibos, Hausa, Yoruba and other: (I.H.Y.O)    52

    Geography of Nigeria    54

    The six geographical Regions of Nigeria    56

    Nigeria Economy    58

    Nigeria’s International Tourism Statistics    60

    Nigeria culture    60

    Nigeria food culture    61

    Some of the Nigeria food culture includes    61

    Strange Culture beliefs    62

    Chieftaincy Titles    62

    Nigeria Resources    63

    Nigeria Social Life    63

    Institutional Structure for Tourism in Nigeria    65

    Tourist Attractions in Nigeria    66

CHAPTER FIVE:    METHODOLOGY    69

    Research Methodology    69

    Sample and Data Collection    71

CHAPTER SIX:    DATA ANALYSIS    73

    Data Analysis    73

    Data Analysis and Interpretation    77

    Findings    81

CHAPTER SEVEN    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION    87

    Discussion    87

    Implications and Future Research    88

    Limitations    90

    Conclusion    92

REFERENCES    94

APPENDICES    99

Appendix A. table 1. List of Respondents    100

Appendix B. table 2. Interview Questions    101                           CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Tourism industry is the biggest and largest industry in the world that is fast growing, tourism right now is a business institution that gives place for events to people when they want to relax or when they are on holiday. However tourism is originally seen as sightseeing and for relaxation, with tourism effect, it basically a way of bringing people together from different part of the word, by mutual interactions, apart from sightseeing and interactions tourism also influences wealth creations and it a means of modifying values and behaviors, with the effects of behavior and values modification it way of enhancing social relationship among the visitors and the locals, this influence gives am impact on societal change, it has been proven by different authors that there is a big empirical evidence that exist between the society and tourism as a whole.

Tourism developments as a multidisciplinary nature influence the culture and other areas of the society (Bhatia, 1993). Tourism as a whole involve the activity of travel from one destination to another, visiting places, lodging in an hotel because tourism provides accommodation for guest and also tour guides, with all these mentioned above tourism industry has gone above buying and selling of gift items and aesthetics.

Tourism industry right now is playing a great role in today’s world economic by contributing greatly to social transformation and the global economic, because of it great impact and influence, tourism has become income and wealth creation for many countries like Dubai, France, America, Hong Kong (Mills, 1983).

According to statista.de the number of international overnight tourist visit to Dubai from 2010 to 2015 grows from 10.16 million to 12.18 million. Most countries like Dubai focus on tourism because of the fast means of generating income to the economic, the government are very involved as well as the locals to create more fascinating destination so that tourist can come and visit. Tourism industry is now a major competitor to the oil sector.

Since 1950s international tourism has been growing rapidly because of high income, good tourist destination, good transports networks, and great leisure time, the UNWTO (2016) gave an insight on how much international tourist has generate income, according to UNWTO (2016) international tourism receipts grew by 3.16% in year 2015 and also international arrival grew by 4.4% increase, for four straight years, international tourism grew more than other sectors like world merchandise trade, with her fast growth, tourism shares in worlds export rise to 7% increase in 2015 which lead to the total international tourism to $1.4 trillion. Remuneration gathered from international tourism on food, drinks, hotel accommodation, shopping, entertainment and other services generate to $1,232 billion in euro it is € 1.110 billion in 2015, and 3.6% increase in exchange rate fluctuations.

Sustainable tourism also play an important role in tourism industry, because is a type of tourism that fulfill or satisfy the needs of the today or present tourist and host

without damaging or jeopardizing the ability of the succeeding generations. By Brundtland (WCED 1987: 43) if an environment is not sustainable, no visitors will like to come to a polluted country. Sustainable development has been proven by different authors that it can be achieved when destinations consider the balance between economic, social and environment of development (Kunz, 2006; Redclift, 2005).

Sustainable tourism and sustainable development have become ambiguous and popular just like ecotourism. Sustainable development as a concept itself helps to recycle waste cause by humans, tourist, host communities and helps in the environment to reduce energy consumption in other to prevent human and natural resources. There are numerous definition by observes and writers who defined it in their own way, and in ways that can be understandable in a simple term, according to some critics, they said some definitions are confusing rather making it clear. John Pezzey (1989)

As Lindberge (1999) and Ashworth (1996) stipulate that, destinations desired should be more knowledgeable and cherished by the tourist is very key, with this, tourism will grow fasts and the significance of socio-cultural, economic and environmental benefits will generates.

Nigeria and other some developing African countries that have weak tourism industries generally have problem of valuable information on tourist resources and areas to give primacy in tourism destination planning, development and marketing (World Tourism Organization, WTO, 1994; Chokor, 1993).

Tourism industries in Nigeria dates back to medieval ages without government intervention witnessed visitors from far and near coming to observe cultural festival, dances and ceremonies etc. Nigeria is the most populated country in African continent with one of the fastest growing economy. Nigeria tourism dwells joy and entertainment for every class as a result of large population and different Mother Nature endowment that could satisfy every one’s appetite.

The contribution of tourism industry in Nigeria with the government intervention cannot be over emphasized. In all over the world, tourism is a money yielding business and is now becoming part of revenue generating sector for the economy. It provides jobs for the local residents thereby increasing the standard of living. Tourism have now become a virtual part of government agenda as more and more hospitality industries spring up in all cities providing relaxation spots to tourist and revenue to the government. They are attracted to Nigeria cultural diversity, scenery and festivals each state of the federation has to offer. It is observed that in 2011 alone, more than 2 million tourist visited Nigeria, the different international church crusades and conferences coupled with foreign investors on business tourism make the bulk of the tourists and spent the equivalent of $3.7 million US Dollars and this is expected to rise by 10% in increase year by year (Dekadt, 1999).

Considering the vast area of tourist attractions in the country and nonchalant or I don’t care altitude of the government sustenance of this “black gold” will be a mirage unless consented effort be made to promote and protect the industry. No matter the endowment of natural resources without the political will of the government and successive governments in the future are needed to sustain and improve the tempo already achieved. In the tourism industry, tourists are the

propelling force that should be well taken care of to enable the spread of hospitability of the country of destination.

Finally, for tourism to succeed in any given environment effective marketing strategies could be improved to achieve the desired result.

    Statement of Problem

Several problems have militated against the growth and development of tourist industry in Nigeria. It is quite obvious that since the discovery of oil (black gold) in the 50s, all eyes were only focus on petrol dollar. The easy money from oil which accounted for more than 90% of gross national income, any other sector of the economy were taken for granted. The money from oil was so huge in the 70s that it was said that the problem of Nigeria then is how to spend the money available. Of recent though, tourist industry have been receiving government attention, but the political will to set the ball rolling had been the greatest impediment. In Nigeria, government employment most often, are regarded as a share of national cake as no one is prepared to bake. Most people are employed in government service not that the individual is qualified, but based on Quota system that enable the federating state to bring individuals to fill vacant position not on merit. In Nigeria, federal characters, Quota system, Educational dis-advantaged areas; people with special consideration and Nepotism are some of the qualifications for employment and therefore tourist industry have had its fair share of those mundane considerations that have hindered its growth.

Again corruption have been institutionalized in the country, that without greasing some one‘s arms nothing seem to work. It has made many industries comatose

including tourist industry.

Against this background, it is of note to acknowledge the present administration trying to fight corruption to its knees, but the efforts seem too little to make a difference as it is perceived the fight is targeted against political enemies, and again this may be in part of a result of the corrupt tendencies of both judicial and public officials and unsavory bureaucratic procedures.

Finally, finance is another area of concern. The period of honey moon is over when money was not our problem but how to use it. Some politicians have shamefully siphoned the common wealth of the nation that salaries of over bloated civil service could no longer be paid and woo of tourist industry continue to nosedive to the detriment of the common man.

Another area of concern is none documentation of research materials. A visit to tourism board this researcher could not find a simple tangible literature for use. The office was in bad shape without interest.

    Purpose of Study

A study without purpose is aimless and of no useful concrete problem solving result can be achieved. In other to ensure that solutions are derived and recommendation made for future generation in response to research problem, this study is aimed to identify the rate of tourism industry to the economy of Nigeria and mankind, also ascertain whether there are indeed problems militating against the tourism industry, and also tackle the problems of finance that tourism board is facing and to make recommendations in the high of the problem discovered.

    Methodology

Research design which is the combination of a specific strategy for investigating a research problem should be adopted. This research is set to answer a set of research questions by way of data collection, analysis and interpretation. This should be done through qualitative research method by carrying an in-depth interview. In addition, however, some middle level and senior officers of Tourism ministry willing to grant audience and discuss the issue at stake will to be involved for opinion and analysis.

Similarly, the physical observation and enquiry into performance rating of some employees will be interviewed to find whether performance appraisal format is strictly adhered to. Finally, data collected will be grouped into sections for purpose of clarity, grading and analysis.

1.5. Organization of the Study

This study contains 7 chapters in which they are interrelated to each other; the first chapter consists of the introduction, statement of problem, purpose of study and the methodology that the researcher will use to conduct this research.

The second chapter entails accurate information about tourism such as over view of tourism, impacts of tourism, types of tourism, tourism in developed and developing countries.

The third chapter contains tourism planning and sustainability which includes sustainable plan and sustainable model which are vital for tourism strategies in Nigeria

The forth chapter covers tourism in Nigeria which comprises of the country’s

geography, economy, history and culture.

The fifth and six chapters comprise of the methods and results gathered from this research, the method used in this research is qualitative research methods by making use of in-depth-interview; the seventh chapter contains discussion and conclusion.

.

AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND PLANNING IN NIGERIA: A SUSTAINABILITY APPROACH



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.