INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: APPLICATION AND BENEFITS TO HUMAN LIFE


INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: APPLICATION AND BENEFITS TO HUMAN LIFE 

                                                             

ABSTRACT

This study was intended to examine the historical development of artificial intelligence. This study was guided by the following objectives; To find out the application and benefits of artificial intelligence to mankind, To ascertain the prospects of artificial intelligence. The study employed the survey research design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data were analyzed using the chi-square test statistical tool at a 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentages. The respondents under the study were 100 respondents from the entire population of Lagos residents. The study findings revealed that artificial intelligence benefits the human race. Artificial intelligence has made life easier for man. Artificial intelligence has more merits than demerits. Artificial intelligence has developed or evolved over time. dev. in Nigeria is major as a result of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence has helped to increase Nigeria’s productivity and output. lack of adequate artificial intelligence may adversely affect the nation’s economy.

The outcome of this research work will therefore be of great help to stakeholders in various sectors for example health, finance, education, security, engineering, manufacturing, research, and technology in understanding the application and benefits of Artificial intelligence to enhance productivity and effectiveness of the sectors.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page………………..i

Certification……………ii

Dedication………………iii

Acknowledgment……….iv

Abstract…………………vi

Table of content………vii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5 HYPOTHESIS

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. INTRODUCTION

2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.3. APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO

HUMAN LIFE

2.4. DISADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 INTRODUCTION

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY

3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.4 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY

3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.6 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INSTRUMENT

3.7 TECHNIQUES OF DATA ANALYSIS

3.8    SCORING OF THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

3.9    DECISION RULE

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND

INTERPRETATION

4.1 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

CHAPTER FIVE

FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1. FINDINGS

CONCLUSION

RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

According to Wikipedia (2015), artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of study in computer science which studies how to create computers and computer software that is capable of intelligent behavior. Major artificial intelligence researchers and other sources define this field as the study and design of intelligent agents, in which an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term as far back as 1955, defines it as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.

Artificial intelligence is a branch of Computer Science concerned with the study and creation of computer systems. Artificial intelligence exhibits some form of intelligence by way of introducing systems that learn new concepts and tasks and also have the ability to reason and draw useful conclusions about the world. Artificial intelligence systems also can understand a natural language or perceive and comprehend a visual scene, and perform other types of feats that require human types of intelligence (Freitas, 1999).

Artificial intelligence research is highly technical and specialized and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers (Drexler, 1986). Artificial intelligence research is also divided into several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution to specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems (or goals) of artificial intelligence research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception, and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long-term goals (Bostrom, 2002). Currently, popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic artificial intelligence. There are a large number of tools used in artificial intelligence, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The artificial intelligence field is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology (Hanson, 1998).

According to Moravec, (1999), the field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence, issues that have been addressed by myth, fiction, and philosophy since antiquity (Kurzweil, 1999). Artificial intelligence has been the subject of tremendous optimism but has also suffered stunning setbacks. Today it has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most challenging problems in computer science (Yudkowsky, 2003).

Artificial intelligence also deals with the study of ideas to bring into being machines that respond to stimulation consistent with traditional responses from humans, given the human capacity for contemplation, judgment, and intention (Vinge, 1993). Each such machine should engage in critical appraisal and selection of differing opinions within itself. Produced by human skill and labor, these machines should conduct themselves in agreement with life, spirit, and sensitivity, though in reality, they are imitations. Another researcher has seen artificial intelligence as systems that combine sophisticated hardware and software with elaborate databases and knowledge-based processing models to demonstrate characteristics of effective human decision-making. However, the researcher will provide an indebt study into the introduction to artificial intelligence and its application and benefit to a human being

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

It is a known fact that the field of artificial intelligence is relatively young (Yudkowsky, 2002). The creation of Artificial Intelligence as an academic discipline can be traced to the 1950s when scientists and researchers began to consider the possibility of machines processing intellectual capabilities similar to those of human beings. Alan Turing, a British mathematician, first proposed a test to determine whether or not a machine is intelligent. The test later became known as the Turing Test, in which a machine tries to disguise itself as a human being in an imitation game by giving human-like responses to a series of questions. Turing believed that if a machine could make a human being believe that he or she is communicating with another human being, then the machine can be considered (Bostrom, 2002). However, artificial intelligence has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, remote sensing, scientific discovery, and toys. However, many Artificial intelligence applications are not perceived as artificial intelligence (Bostrom, 2002). A lot of cutting-edge artificial intelligence has filtered into general applications, often without being called artificial intelligence because once something becomes useful enough and common enough it's not labeled artificial intelligence anymore," Nick Bostrom reports. "Many thousands of artificial intelligence applications are deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry. In the late 90s and early 21st century, Artificial intelligence technology became widely used as elements of larger systems, but the field is rarely credited for these successes. For example; finance, hospitals and medicines, heavy industries, online and telephone customer service, transportation, telecommunication, toys and games, music, aviation, news, publishing & writing. However, this study seeks to provide an overview of artificial intelligence, its application, and its use to a human being in general (Bostrom, 2002).

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To examine the historical development of artificial intelligence. To find out the application and benefits of artificial intelligence to mankind. To ascertain the prospects of artificial intelligence.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

How was artificial intelligence developed historically? What are the application and benefits of artificial intelligence to mankind? What are the prospects of artificial intelligence?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: Artificial intelligence does not benefit human life in any way

HA: Artificial intelligence does not benefit human life in any way

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This research will be of significance in the following area:

It will be of help to stakeholders in various sectors for example health, finance, education, security, engineering, manufacturing, research, and technology in understanding the application and benefits of Artificial intelligence to enhance productivity and effectiveness of the sectors. The findings of this research work will also serve as a reference for the academic endeavors of lecturers and students and also help the public who would want to know about some advantages and disadvantages (if any) of the use of artificial intelligence. Findings and recommendations from this study will guide the stakeholders in various sectors to determine the type of artificial intelligence to be adopted and also help them identify specific areas where artificial intelligence can be applied.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

This study on the application and benefits of artificial intelligence will cover the overview of the historical development of artificial intelligence as a branch of computer science that deals with creating computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. However, this study will examine the application and benefits of Artificial intelligence to human life and this research will also consider the future and prospects of artificial intelligence

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

In this research work, the terms defined reflect how the researcher wants them to be understood in the context of this work

Behaviour- the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others

Artificial- made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally, especially as a copy of something natural.

Computer- an electronic device that is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.

Intelligence - the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.

Innovation- The process of translating an idea or invention into a good or service that creates value

REFERENCES

Bostrom, N. (2002). "Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards." Journal of Evolution and Technology, 9.

Drexler, K. E. (1986): Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. (Anchor Books: New York, 1986).  

Freitas Jr., R. A. (1999): Nanomedicine, Volume 1: Basic Capabilities. (Landes Bioscience: Georgetown, TX, 1999).

Hanson, R., et al. (1998). "A Critical Discussion of Vinge's Singularity Concept." Extropy Online.

Kurzweil, R. (1999): The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence. (Viking: New York, 1999).

Moravec, H. (1999): Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind. (Oxford University Press: New York, 1999).

Vinge, V. (1993). "The Coming Technological Singularity." Whole Earth Review, Winter issue.

Wikipedia, 2015: www.wikipedia.com

Yudkowsky, E. (2002). "The AI Box Experiment." Webpage. 

Yudkowsky, E. (2003). Creating Friendly AI 1.0. 

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