THE IMPACT OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF INSTITUTE OF FINANCE MANAGEMENT IN DAR ES SALAAM REGION)


THE IMPACT OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF INSTITUTE OF FINANCE MANAGEMENT IN DAR ES SALAAM REGION)  

ABSTRACT

Organizations must step outside their traditional roles and comfort zones to look at new ways of working. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose, have pride in what they do, and can reach their potential. The study aimed to assess the impact of working environment on employees’ performance at Institute of Finance Management in Dar es Salaam Region. For the purpose of this study, descriptive research design was used. Simple random sampling technique was respectively used to select the respondents for the study. Respondents for this study were fifty (50) made up of twenty-five (25) senior staff and twenty-five (25) junior staff. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection.

The study findings indicate that, organization working environment had an impact on members as far as respondents are concerned. The study also revealed that employees’ will improve their performance if the problems identified during the research are tackled by the management. The problems are flexibility of working environment, work noise distraction, supervisor’s interpersonal relationship with subordinates, presence of job aid, the use of performance feedback and improve of work incentives in the organization so that to motivate employees to perform their job.

In conclusion based on the findings the study recommended that, the organization needs to have periodic meetings with employees to air their grievances to management and serve as a motivating factor to the employees. Management should find ways and means of communicating their goals and strategies to their employees in order to achieve what the organization is in business for, its mission and vision.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION II

COPYRIGHT III

DECLARATION IV

DEDICATION V

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT VI

ABSTRACT VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII

LIST OF FIGURES XV

CHAPTER ONE 1

INTRODUCTION1

Background to the Study1

Statement of the Research Problem2

Research Objectives4

General Objective4

Specific Objectives4

1.3 Research Questions 4

Significance of the Study5

Scope of the Study5

Organization of the Study6

CHAPTER TWO 7

LITERATURE REVIEW7

Introduction7

Conceptual Definitions7

Working Environment7

Employee Performance9

Theoretical Literature Review10

Goal-Setting Theory11

Expectancy Theory12

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory12

Frederick Herzberg's Theory14

Mcgregor Theory X and Theory Y15

Working Environment Factors that Affect Employees Performance16

Supervisor Support16

Job Aid17

Physical Work Environment17

Performance Feedback18

Workplace Incentives19

Empirical Analysis19

Empirical Analysis in the World19

Empirical Analysis in Africa21

Empirical Analysis in Tanzania22

Research Gap24

Conceptual Framework25

Theoretical Framework26

Job Aid and Employee Performance26

Supervisor Support and Employee Performance26

Physical Work Environment and Employee Performance27

Work Incentives and Employee Performance27

Performance Feedback and Employee Performance28

CHAPTER THREE 29

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY29

Introduction29

Research Design29

Study Area29

Population of the Study30

Sample Size and Sampling Techniques30

Sample Size30

Sampling Techniques31

Data Collection Methods31

Primary Data32

Secondary Data32

Data Collection Tools32

Questionnaire33

Observation33

Interview33

Reliability and Validity of Data34

Data Analysis34

CHAPTER FOUR 35

PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION35

Introduction35

Findings and Data Analysis35

Gender of Respondents35

Rank of Respondents36

Age of Respondents36

Physical Working Environment37

Workplace Noise Distraction38

Employee Performance Feedback38

Communication of organization Goals and Strategies39

Job Aid40

Employee Recognition as Individual41

Communication between Employees42

Employee Career Advancement43

Employee Relationship with Supervisor43

Employee Job Security in the Organization44

Clear Definition of Task45

Supervisor’s Rating on Communication46

Supervisor’s Rating on Planning and Organizing46

Supervisor’s Rating on Directing and Coordinating47

Supervisor’s Rating on Job/Technical Knowledge48

Work Incentives towards Employee Performance50

Length of Working Period52

Referral of a Friend to Work with the Organization52

Fairly Treatment of Rewarding Employees53

Discussion of the Findings54

CHAPTER FIVE 56

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS56

Introduction56

Summary of the Main Findings57

Implications of the Findings57

Conclusion59

Recommendations59

Limitations of the Study60

Suggested Area for Further Study61

REFERENCE 62

APPENDICES 69

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1:  Sample Composition of the Study 31

Table 4.1: Gender of Respondents 35

Table 4.2: Rank of Respondents 36

Table 4.3 : Age of Respondents 36

Table 4. 4: Physical Working Environment 37

Table 4.5 : Workplace Noise Distraction 38

Table 4.6: Employee Performance Feedback 39

Table 4.7: Communication of Organization Goals and Strategies 40

Table 4.8: Job Aid 40

Table 4.9: Employee Recognition as Individual 41

Table 4.10: Communication between Employees 42

Table 4.11: Employee Career Advancement 43

Table 4.12: Employee Relationship with Supervisor 44

Table 4.13: Employee Job Security in the Organization 44

Table 4.14: Clear Definition of Task 45

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Maslow’s theory hierarchy needs 13

Figure 2.2: Conceptual Framework 25

Figure 4. 1:  Supervisor’s rating on communication 46

Figure 4.2:  Supervisor’s rating on planning and organizing 47

Figure 4.3: Supervisor’s rating on directing and coordinating 48

Figure 4.4: Supervisor’s rating on job/technical knowledge 49

Figure 4.5: Supervisor’s rating on interpersonal relationship 50

Figure 4.6:  Work incentives towards employee performance 51

Figure 4.7: Length of working period 52

Figure 4.8: Referral of a friend to work with the organization 53

Figure 4.9: Fairly treatment of rewarding employees 54

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Working environment plays an important role towards the employees ‘performance. Working environment is argued to impact immensely on employees’ performance either towards negative or the positive outcomes (Chandrasekar2001).In the world, there are international organizations who debate the rights of employee. Most people spend fifty percent of their lives within indoor environments, which greatly influence their mental status, actions, abilities and performance (Dorgan, 1994). Better outcomes and increased productivity is assumed to be the result of better workplace environment. Better physical environment of office will boosts the employees and ultimately improve their productivity. Various literature pertain to the study of multiple offices and office buildings indicated that the factors such as dissatisfaction, cluttered workplaces and the physical environment are playing a major role in the loss of employees’ productivity (Carnevale 1992,Clements- Croome 1997).

In the 1990’s, the factors of work environment had changed due to the changes in several factors such as the social environment, information technology and the flexible ways of organizing work processes (Hasun & Makhbul, 2005). When employees’ are physically and emotionally fit will have the desire to work and their performance outcomes shall be increased. Moreover, a proper workplace environment helps in reducing the number of absenteeism and thus can increase thee mployees’ performance which leads to increased productivity at the workplace (Boles et al.2004).

As the Economic and Social Council reported in 2007, global economic growth is increasingly failing to create the kinds of new and better jobs that can lead to a reduction in poverty. Despite high and sustained economic growth in many developing countries, unemployment is rising, a large proportion of the labour force is working below poverty level wages, and the majority of non-agricultural employment is situated in the informal economy. It is of little surprise that in recent years there has been a shift of focus from a singular interest in economic growth to an enlarged concern with improving the quality of work. Governments from across Africa have forcefully called for action to overcome these challenges. The African Union Extraordinary Summit on Employment and Poverty Alleviation in Africa (Ouagadougou, September 2004) overwhelmingly endorsed the ILO’s Decent Work Agenda with an emphasis on the creation of quality jobs. The Government of the UnitedRepublic of Tanzania supports this pan-African call for the integration of employment growth and improved quality of work, as reflected in its National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty 2005– 2010 and its National Employment Policy of 2008.

Statement of the Research Problem

Noble (2009) states that more attention should be paid in identifying and dealing with working environment because when employee have negative perception to their environment they sometimes suffer from chronic stress. Opperman (2002) stated that, working environment means those processes, systems, structures, tools or conditions inthe workplace that impact favorably or unfavorably individual performance. The working environment also includes policies, rules, culture, resources, working

relationships, work location, internal and external environmental factors, all of which influence the ways that employee perform their job functions.

This study is designed to examine the impact of working environment on employee’s performance at the institute of finance management. This is the public institution which operates at the center of Dar es Salaam city with about 9000 students and 320 employees. The problem identified which made to undergo this research is based on the physical work environment which mostly affect employees’ performance. The institute is located in an area of 4 acres which is small compared to the number of students and employees. This resulted to lack of enough offices for employees to do their work effectively, noise which cause discomfort depending on the task they are given and the environment of the place they are working.

Through this study the employer will get to know how its work environment impacts greatly on the employee’s level of motivation and performance. A well designed office signals the values and objectives of the organization and the use of design in office interior communicates an organization values and identity. Office design therefore should be one of the factors in affecting employee’s productivity. Employee’s morale is often interrelated when it comes to productivity in the work environment. It is therefore important to find out the impact of working environment on employees’ performance at this institute which will provide knowledge and measures to other public institutions in Tanzania.

Research Objectives

This research will be guided by the following study objectives

General Objective

The general objective of this study is to assess the impact of working environment on employees’ performance at the Institute of Finance Management in Dar es Salaam.

Specific Objectives

i. To determine the contribution of performance feedback on employees’ performance.

ii. To assess the use of job aid towards employees’ performance.

iii. To determine whether physical work environment has influence on employees’ performance.

iv. To examine whether supervisor support contribute towards employees’ performance.

Research Questions

i. How does performance feedback improve employees’ performance?

ii. How can job aid enhance employees ‘performance?

iii. What are the physical work environments that add towards employees’ performance?

iv. Which contribution does a supervisor has towards employees’ performance?

Significance of the Study

It is anticipated that the findings of the study will pave way for the authorities of the institute of finance management to accept the variable that affects employees’ working environment and their performance at the organization. Such an acceptance could be utilized to improve on the working conditions of employees. It will also visualize that the findings of this study will enable the organization to know how to address issues concerning the employees and its working environment and to consider office design as an important factor in increasing employees’ performance.

It will therefore serve as a reference material for future researches in this area. Also, the results will throw more light on factors affecting employee’s performance as far as their environments are concerned. The study is expected to provide knowledge and measures to improve the working environment of employees for better performance in public institution specifically at the Institute of Finance Management in Dar es Salaam Region.

Scope of the Study

The study will focus on employees at the Institute of Finance Management. This is the public institution which operates at the city center of Dar es Salaam Region with about 9000 students and about 320 employees. This study will find out how working environment has a significant impact upon employee performance and productivity.

Organization of the Study

The study will be structured into five chapters. Chapter one will deal with introduction, statement of research problem, research objectives and significance of the study. Chapter two will consist of literature review which will comprise of conceptual definitions, theoretical review, empirical analysis and conceptual frame work. Chapter three will contain the research methodology which comprise of the research design, study area, research population, sampling design, and data collection methods. Chapter four will highlight the presentation and interpretation of data as well as discussing of findings. Chapter five will contain the summary of the study, recommendations and conclusions.

.

THE IMPACT OF WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF INSTITUTE OF FINANCE MANAGEMENT IN DAR ES SALAAM REGION)



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.




TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.com is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.com" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.