COMPENSATION MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PZ CUSSONS NIGERIA PLC
The study attempted to examine the influence of compensation management on the performance of the employee as well as the overall efficiency of the organization. Relevant literatures were reviewed to highlight the subject matter. Pz Cussons Nig. Plc was selected for testing in the study selected representative comprising of staff and management formed the sample size examined. The simple random sampling techniques were used. The questionnaire was used to collect data. 75 questionnaires were properly answered and returned from the initials 100 questionnaires. And respondents responses were presented in frequency tables and simple percentages was used for demographic data, while the chi – square (X2) method of data analysis was employed for hypothesis testing. The growing emphasis on employee engagement as critical to organizational performance means that the concept of total reward is exerting more and influence on reward strategy.
Reward management however, is concerned with the formulation and implementation of strategies and policies that aim to reward people fairly, equitably and consistently in accordance with their value to the organization. It deals with the design, implementation and maintenance of reward process and practices that are geared to the improvement of organizational, team and individual performance.
Consequently, it was proffered that compensation should be goal driven for instance, Pz Cussons should place more emphasis on financial reward, this will aid workers to evaluate his performance towards the organization, thereby promoting organizational performance and profitability.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi – viii
1.1 Background of the study 1 – 3
1.2 Statement of Problem 3 – 4
1.3 Objectives of the study 4 – 5
1.4 Research questions 5
1.5 Research hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the study 6 – 7
1.7 Scope of the study 7
1.8 Limitation of the study 7 – 8
1.9 Operational definitions of terms 8
2.1 Literature review 9 - 11
2.2 Employee benefits 11 - 13
2.3 Incentive plans 14- 17
2.4 Total reward 17 - 18
2.5 Profit sharing 21
2.6 Linking efficiency to compensation 21 -22
2.7 Growing result for pay for performance 22
2.8 Contingent pay for individual 22 – 24
2.9 Pension Schemes 24 – 25
3.0 The theories of compensation 25
3.1 Process theory 25 – 27
3.2 Content theory 27 - 32
3.3 Introduction 33
3.4 Research design 33
3.5 Population of the study 33
3.6 The sample size 34
3.7 The sampling techniques 34
3.8 Research instrument 34 – 35
3.9 Method of data collection 35
4.0 Method of analysis adopted 35 – 36
4.1 Restatement of research hypothesis 36
4.2 Historical background of PZ 37
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
4.3 Introduction 38
4.4 Presentation of demographic variable of respondents 38 – 41
4.5 Analysis of questions based on compensation management 41 – 48
and organizational performance
4.6 Testing of Hypotheses 49 – 56
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.7 Introduction 57
4.8 Summary of findings 57
4.9 Conclusion 58
5.0 Recommendations 58 – 59
5.1 Suggestion for further studies 59
Books and Reports 61
Journal Articles 62
Appendix 63 – 65
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The compensation of employees at all level has become one of the major functions of human resource management. It is one of the most important, complex and problematic issues in managing human resources in any organization. Every business enterprise that wants to gain competitive advantage over its competitors must attract the services of high quality employees. According to M.C Faraland (2001) ‘Man is a rational animal covered with maximizing his economic gains’. He continuously put forth effort to satisfy his personal needs ranging from physiological needs to self actualization.
Maslow states that it is the way to desire to satisfy the needs that motivate workers into higher performances and productivity, they strive to increase their output and efficiency in order to acquire the means for satisfying these needs.
Mutter & Donald (2003) describes remuneration as payment system based on effort, performance and productivity in essence; remuneration refers to salary or wages and the allowanced and financial benefits payable to employee, either in cash or kind in return for his service. In a nutshell remuneration is the price of labour. Essentially, employees work to produce reward for their performances. Thus, the exchange of labour for financial reward is the heart of the compensation process. However, formal compensation can be offered using three types of reward namely;
Pay, Incentives and Benefits.
Compensation management is an integral part of management. Compensation management is a systematic approach to providing monetary values to employees in exchange for work performed. It may achieve several purchases assisting in recruitment, job performance and job satisfaction. It is an organized practice that involves balancing the work employee relation by providing monetary and non monetary benefits to employees. It is a tool used by management for a variety of purpose to further the existence and growth of the company. It may be attuned according to economic scenario, the business needs goals and available resources.
Compensation management contributes to the overall success of the organizations in several ways. To be effective, the managers must appreciate the value of competitive pay, to maintain and retain quality employees while recognizing the need to manage pay roll costs.
There are two different types of compensation management:
DIRECT COMPENSATION is typically comprised of salary payment and health benefit. The creation of salary ranges and pay scales for different positions within the company are the central responsibility of compensation management staff. Effective compensation plan are routinely compared with other firms in the same industry or against published bench marks. Although some jobs are unique within a specific firm, the vast majority of positions can be compared to similar jobs in other firms or industries. Thus, direct compensation that is in line with industry-standard provides employees with the assurance of fair compensation. This helps the employer avoid the costly loss of trained staff to a competitor.
INDIRECT COMPENSATION focuses on the personal motivations of each person to work. Although salary is important, people are most productive in jobs where they share the company’s values and priorities. Common types of indirect compensation include free staff development courses, subsidized day care, opportunity for promotion or transfer within the company. Public recognition, ability to effect change in the work place and service to others.
An effective compensation package has a combination of direct and indirect compensation. Compensation management programs often include salary range for each position, with incremental increases and annual reviews. During these review sessions, both type of compensation management are addressed and presented to the employee as part of the total package.
Compensation is the combination of monetary and other benefits provided to an employee in return for their time and skill.
The field of compensation management provides management with the ideal combination of different remuneration types. The purpose of these types of program is to retain and motivate good employees
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Non availability of staff buses to conveniently covey workers from their various areas to make sure the meet the resumption time. Apart from this cafeteria is a place where food is served, bought and eating during the break time, but this facility is lacking in the organization. Irregular promotion/advancement for workers upgrade has become a threat worrying the workers. The practice of man knows man/favoritism. The workers complain has taken over the organization. Some of the workers complain to have in one position over 4 – 5 years, while some of their colleagues get rapid and regular promotion. This act is the outcome of God’s fatherism and man know man. The less privilege seldom gets their promotion. The term work environment encompasses different aspects such as physical work environment, management attitude towards employees, relationship with colleagues and working condition. Recent research has highlighted the hypothesis that an employee’s work environment can have a dramatic effect on his or her performance and attitude to work. In addition to physical attributes of a work, place, hostile work environment are like cancer that can eat through the core.
Productivity and employee performances faster and more devastating than any other work associated instance which the company in question seriously need to deal with as it is extremely disruptive to the work force. Teamwork is often viewed as an efficient condensing the individual contributions of individuals into cohesive outcome. The term ‘Self directed work teams have been used since the 1950s to describe teams of employees working together toward one common goal. In the typical work environment like Pz Cussons plc, a self directed work should be encouraged in employee’s work-life for a greater performance. Also workers complained there is inadequate remuneration and incentives to commensurate with the nature and importance of the job they perform. Employees look forward or anticipate certain rewards from management which are not forth coming. There should be differentiation in pay due to our region, skills, talent and capacities as well as a business overtime payment and retirement e.t.c.
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study can be viewed as a contribution to greater understanding of compensation as an instrument that can be employed to increase efficiency and productivity and the value to secure and retain labour service. Other objectives include: -
To find the different compensation packages that exists in Pz Cussons Nigeria
To find out from different employee’s view type of reward those reimburse
their morale for highest degree of performance, either monetary or non-monetary reward.
To identify the particular compensation package that motivates employee to
The study also seeks to find out different view of the employees in the
organization concerning compensation packages operating in the company.
To identify the Strategic Business Unit (SBU) structure adopt by the company for its efficiency and performance. To find out the relationship between workers reward and their level of
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTION
(a). Does workers compensation propelled organization performance?
(b). Does employees compensation contribute to effectiveness of the organization?
(c). Does hostile work environment improves employees performance in Pz
(d) Which compensation package motivates employee to highest level of
(e). Can reward system increase employees level of performance?
(f). How can reward be linked to employee efficiency and productivity?
(g). Could reward be linked to job satisfaction?
(h). What are the perceptions of worker concerning compensation packages in Pz
(i). Does employees pay commensurate with their performance?
(j). what suggestion/ recommendation would be proffered for the organization
(k) Would poor working condition, lack of promotion and inadequate salary
structure, reduce the output of employees?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: Poor compensation packages will not reduce workers morale and will not affect their productivity adversely.
H1: Poor compensation packages will reduce workers morale and will affect their productivity adversely.
H0: Effective remuneration structure will not aid organization in achieving high level of performance.
H1: Effective remuneration structure will aid organization in achieving high level of performance.
H0: There is no relationship between workers reward and their level of performance.
H1: There is a positive relationship between workers reward and their level of performance.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this research are partial and theoretical significance not only with the reference to the members of the work organization studied, but also with regard to the available knowledge about problems of compensation management.
The research also enhances and broadens the knowledge of the management that attained of organization goals is aimed at involving all parties in the organization, the management, the employees and the customers/suppliers. The significant derived from this study will enable the management to realize that poor working condition, lack of promotion, inadequate salary structure e.t.c. will immensely reduce the output of employees. This study is a contribution to the body of knowledge existing. In the field of human resources management especially in wages and salaries, administration because of the approach brought to bear upon the research which may see compensating management in different light from much of the existing literature on compensation of workers in Nigeria. The importance of this study is to see the relationship (if any) between salaries, wages, and other staff motivations and organizational performances.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study tries to examine compensation management and organizational performance and how employees reward could be linked to efficiency and higher productivity with a particular reference to Pz Cussons Nigeria plc. The scope of the research is limited in both depth and coverage, the study concerning the examination of independent variable affecting compensation of employees and organizational performances in Pz Cussons Nigeria plc. The study will not cover all the variety of products producing in the company because of the problem that may be encountered when administering questionnaires on employees in all the industries all over Nigeria. As such, this study will adhere strictly to Pz Cussons Nigeria plc detergent and cleaners producing plants in Nigeria.
1.8. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research is affected by non availability of fund. This however, is caused by the poor standard of living in the country which emanated from economic situation of the country and high rate of inflation which has caused prices in commodities and other materials needed by the researcher to increase.
The time fame scheduled for the completion of the research is too limited. It is difficult to retrieve information from the populace because people prefer to keep their privacy. In a situation where data over the year are needed, such data are not often possible to collect.
1.9. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Pay: This is a generally rewards as the most important form of compensation because of the role it plays in employees motivation of putting all his effort towards organization productivity. Pay is the basic compensation employee receives usually inform of wages or salary. Incentives: These are rewards designed to encourage and reimburse employees for effort beyond normal performance expectations. It includes bonus, commission, profit sharing, plans, piece work, stock option, cost reduction, suggestion plan, production bonus plan e.t.c. incentive pay has the following benefit: Motivation: linking pay to performance increase employees motivation to perform i.e superior performance is encouraged and inferior. Performance is discouraged Retention: high performance is more motivated to stay with an organization. Productivity: because incentive pays encourage superior performances, an organization’s productivity can be highly improved Organizational goals: it helps to designing individual goals with organizational goals.
Benefits: These are rewards available to employees as part of organizational membership. These includes free medical treatment, vocational or leave pay, call back pay, lay off pay, rest period pay, lunch subsidy, accident insurance, disability insurance, scholarship for staff’s children.
According to flippo (2002), increasing management is accepting the idea that group as well as individual can be motivated to work more effectively. Thus most of them embark on employee compensation program which are designed to attract capable employees to the organization, motivates them into superior performances and retain. This service over an extended period of time. Services increase inefficiency and higher productivity is one of the goals of an organization effective, compensation management is a step towards achieving the goals.