FAMILY PLANNING AS AN AGENT OF POPULATION REDUCTION OF THE INCREASING POPULATION IN NIGERIA
Background of the Study
Population increase has become a thing of great concern for economic planners, demographers and even government agents. As world population moves towards 5.9 billions, the per capital production of money basic commodities is falling, for instance the recent global food shortage is an evidence. (Population Report, 2006). The effort to raise incomes and living standard is falling in many countries like Nigeria, particularly where population is growing most rapidly and where family planning is not fully practiced.
In the seventies, our country enjoyed the oil boom and having a large family, did not bring any economic burden to parents because things were relatively cheaper and easy to come by. There was little or no psychological stress about caring for children. Many parents stuck to the traditional belief of having many children because culturally, having many children prove how wealthy a man is. More also many men prefer to have large families that cold help them in farming.
The current realization that large population can hold back socio-economic development and health for all programmes has led to the quest for information on family planning and other related reproductive health problems in Nigeria.
Planned Parenthood programmes have become necessary in Nigeria because of the prevailing socio-economy and psychological factors that affect both parents and children.
However, in recent years economic situations changed and caring for children brings both psychological and economic strains on both parents and children. Therefore, there is need for family planning either traditional or the newly introduced modern methods to curtail the trend. The traditional method include prolonged breast feeding, post partum, the use of ring, waist band, wooden doll, the use of black soap and salt to be dissolved and taken immediately after sex. The above mentioned methods are commonly practiced on the Yoruba’s. on the other hand, the new modern method emphasized the use of contraceptive such as pill, IUCD (Intrauteri9ne Contraceptive Device), condom, implant, and vasectomy. For clarification, the new modern method is broken down into three categories, which includes Temporary modern methods examples are pills, injectable, condom. Permanent new modern method examples are vasectomy, tubectomy and Natural methods which involves withdrawal method and rhythm (Ayeni, 2002).
Family planning is a way of maintaining reasonable interval in childbearing practice. That is letting a woman rest after giving the first birth before another birth. Family planning also embraces a way of preventing unwanted pregnancy, and a means of sexual gratification. Nwangoro (1999) defined that family planning is an organized effort to assist people to have the number of children they want and to space them as they choose. In addition, family planning is available to help individuals and couples to choose if and when they will have a child or to choose the number of children that they will have. The choices depend on a complicated mixture of social, cultural and psychological influences; and lately for the first time in history, men and women have had reliable methods to enable them to make that choice freely and relatively easily.
This principle of choice is important as it includes not only the choice of using family planning, but the choice of the birth control method most suited to the particular circumstance of the couple. But neither the man nor the woman can make an informed choice until each has a basic knowledge of the different methods, their efficiency in protection against pregnancy and their advantages and disadvantages. The choice maybe that the man uses contraceptive measures; or that the woman chooses the contraceptive. Both should know of the available method so that the decision is made carefully. The choice is helped if each partner has an idea of how efficient the method chosen is in an unwanted pregnancy. On the other hands, family planning involved the use of contraceptive control in limiting or spacing out pregnancies either for socio-economic health, or population control purposes.
The benefits of family planning cannot be over emphasized because they go a long way in helping individuals, parents, children, communities and government in the area of health, education of children, and social economic and political development of the society. For these reasons, government, non-governmental organizations and individuals have found it necessary to introduce family planning Programmes at federal, state, local and community levels and Isiala Mbano in Imo State in Okigwe senatorial zone is not left out. The local government is made up of semi urban and rural areas namely; Amaraku, Amauzari, Anara, Eziama, Ibeme, Obollo, Ogbor, Umuduru, Umunkwo, Ugiri, Umuneke and Umuozu
The population of the people is about ten thousand five hundred (2006 census figure from National Population Commission Office, Isiala Mbano Local Government Council Imo State). The local government has a wide range able land. For this reason; the major occupation of the people is farming. Due to the nature of their occupation, most men prefer to have a large family that will assist them in their farming and this had led to high population in the area. On the other hand, most of the women prefer to go into marriage rather than going to school. This is to a large extent affects the level of literacy among the people. It is only those in the semi-urban areas of the local government who have little interest in education and they prefer to send their children to school instead of engaging hem in early marriage. In view of the above discussion, the location levels of literacy to a large extent have impact on the level of awareness to family planning programme among the people.
Family planning was introduced to this country at a time when such need was of paramount importance. It was to bring both psychological and economic relief to families. Interestingly, government and other non-governmental agencies have put in much effort to bring the knowledge about family planning to the people through advertisement on Television, Radio and other media. For instance, in 1987, the Imo State Commissioner for Health stated that there should be increased public enlightenment campaign to educate parents on the need for them to make use of public health facilities particularly those concerning birth control. This connotes request for contraceptive device as prevention of unwanted pregnancy through provision of contraceptive as outlets that will be accessible to families. On this note, if family planning education is adopted, the problem of population explosion will be minimized. This should not be seen as divorcing sexual act from procreation. Family planning should be geared towards changing people’s attitude to family size. However, people’s attitude are to a large extent influenced by social and cultural condition of the environment as well as their views on the importance of children and their own need as status aspiration.
The applications of family planning method have a significant advantage to maintain in the area of health social economic and political endeavours, therefore should be a continuous process. Maine (1991), opined that family planning should be encouraged for its advantages on the entire society because the advantages derived from family planning are numerous.
However, opposition to family planning was rational to the physicians. This was because they saw family planning as writing with one hand and erasing withhe other, in this case they support family planning as a means of minimizing the problems posed by illegal abortion and abandonment of babies.
People who suggest family planning see it as he best thing parents can do for themselves and for their children. Akingba (1994) believes that it is Unreasonable to bring more children into the world than a couple can afford to maintain well. A couple should produce only the number of children that their circumstances in life permit them to feed, cloths, educate and generally look after properly in sickness and in health.
Another writer, Feuerstein (1991), stressed the necessity of family planning. According to her the major causes of increasing death o women at child birth seems to be “lack of self-discipline, poor spacing of birth and general disregard for simple health principles”. The result of pregnancies in quick succession is a worn out, easily tired, and poorly nourished young woman looking many years older than her real age. These states make one an easy prey to illness.
The effort of government and other agencies on this issue has to be complimented by counselors through thorough education of the people, especially at the local level where much will be achieved in securing better family units through well-planned child rearing habits.
Statement of the Problem
The world population is increasing in geometric rate; government can no longer meet up with the demand of their citizens. This has resulted to global food shortage. Having many children is really a great burden that tends to drain the financial resources of standard of living and bring about economic hardship. Most parents with large families find it difficult to provide the basic need of their children such as food, shelter health and education for the family. This tends to bring psychological and emotional stress on most parents.
Family planning is the practice of exercising choice about the arrival of the child into the family, taking into consideration the mother’s health, welfare or the children, family happiness and all the prevailing economic circumstances. Family planning encourages couples to have those children that they can properly and adequately carter for. Also family planning involves child spacing and child rearing practice.
On this backdrop therefore, the problem of this study pose as question, is what are the influence of family planning on families in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area of Imo State.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to find out the influence of Family Planning on families in Isiala Mbano L.G.A of Imo State. Specifically, the study was set out:
1. To determine the level of awareness the people have on family planning programmes.
2. To ascertain the level of acceptance the people derive on family planning.
3. To find out the most effective family planning methods embraced by the people of Isiala Mbano.
4. To ascertain the influence of family planning on parents reproductive behaviour.
Significance of the Study
This study which investigated the influence of family planning is immensely significance to the parents, government, non-governmental organization, health workers, as well as family guidance counselors.
The benefit of family planning cannot be over-emphasized because they go a long way in helping parents, their children, and education of the children and also enhanced the socio-economic and political development of the society. For these reasons, government, non-governmental organization have found it necessary to introduce family planning at both Federal, State and Local Government levels to maintain good health, socio-economic and political endeavours.
However, guidance counselor will benefit from this study since it beholds on them to inform the public, parents as well as society on the importance of family planning. Family guidance counselor gives information related to child spacing and likewise encourage on the number of children one can carter for.
Since government and other agencies had made effort to control the situation, the researcher was therefore interested in the influence of family planning on he families of Isiala Mbano Local Government Area of Imo State. The study will therefore help parents, health workers and most specifically guidance counselors to know the right steps to take in creating awareness on the appropriate method of family planning that is good for different individual and society at large. Theoretically, the study will add to the body of knowledge in the step that had been taken so far in the implementation of family planning. This body of knowledge will be disseminated through publication in journals, workshop, conferences and seminars.
Scope of the study
This study covered the entire communities of Isiala Mbano Local government Area of Imo State. The study was limited to the response of the existing families in the entire communities towards family planning.
The Isiala Mbano Local Government Area consists of twelve communities namely:
Amaraku, Amauzari, Anara, Eziama, Ibeme, Obollo, Ogbor, Umuduru, Umunkwo, Ugiri, Umuneke and Umuozu. In addition, the study focused on the level of awareness, level of acceptance of family planning by the people, method of family planning mostly embraced by the people and the impact of family planning o nthe people’s reproductive behaviour.
In pursuance of purpose of the study, the researcher sought answer to the following research questions.
1. What is the level awareness on Family Planning among the people in the community?
2. What is the level of acceptance of the people towards family planning?
3. Which of these family planning methods do people actually embrace mostly?
4. What influence does family planning have on the reproductive behaviour of parents in the community?
This study sought to test the following hypotheses:
HO1: There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the level of awareness on family planning methods, between the families in semi-urban and those in the rural areas.
HO2: There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the level of acceptance of new modern method of family planning between families on rural areas and those in semi-urban areas.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related is presented under the following sub-headings:
⦁ Concept of family
⦁ Concept of family planning
⦁ Methods of family planning
⦁ Benefits of family planning
⦁ The role of education in family planning
⦁ Implication for counselling
⦁ Health belief model by Rosen Stock et al
⦁ Theory of reasoned action by Fish Bein and Ajzen
Summary of the review
Concept of Family
There is not one universally accepted definition of family, and it is no likely that we will progress towards one soon. Any of the many definitions has its district advantages, disadvantages and implications. We have the structural definition which defines family by form, that is who is in the family and by what objective means they are connected (e.g marriage, blood, adoption). The second is the task orientation that defines family by function. The transaction: it concentrates on the task performed and expected family function. The transactional view addresses the issued of interaction – the communication process that connect individuals as family members and show how communication constitutes family. Structural definitions layout specific criteria that make clear who is in the family and who is not. Structural definitions do not depend on the quality of interaction or t task performance and they are not dependent on subjective feeling of identity or affection. Rather they define family by form. According to Popenoe’s definition, family is relatively small domestic group of kin (or in kinlike relationship-consisting of at least one adult and one dependent person. Popenoe (1993). This definition implies that family shares a household and that a dependent who is related by blood (or a blood-like relationship, as in the case of adoption must be present. The implication of these definitions that a sexual bond is not necessary or sufficient to form a family and it does bit consider a married or cohabitating couple a family. However, a single parent who lives with one or more dependents is considered a family.
The U.S Census Bureau (2002) or Segrin and Flora (2005) also defines family generally, but takes more broad approach and disregards the necessity of a dependent. According to the U.S Census Bureau, family is a group of two or more people related by birth marriage, or adoption and residing together (in a household). The implication is that as long as the individuals are related by blood r law and live together, they were considered family. This further implied that two brothers, two cousins or an adult mother with daughter who live together fit this definition of family..