DETERMINANT OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS ON EFFECTIVE PATIENT CARE. (A CASE STUDY OF GENERAL HOSPITAL IKOT EKPENE)
This study focuses on the determinant of the characteristics of healthcare providers on effective patient’s care. A case study of General Hospital Ikot Ekpene, Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. The specific objectives of the study was to examine the characteristics of health care providers on effective patients care. Other objectives were; determine the role of health care provider on effective patients care, to examine problems affecting health care providers in providing effective patient care, to access the level of patients. Satisfaction on services rendered to them. To evaluate the standard in health care system which brings about effective health care to patients. To achieved the specific objective of the study, some related literature where reviewed. A sample size of 120 was used for the study to select simple random sampling technique was adopted to select retrieved and were valid for study out of a total number of 120 distributed. The questionnaires were reviewed and analyzed using tables and simple percentages. The findings of the study showed that the roles of health care providers on effective patient care are; provision of diagnostic services to patient, storage and retrieval of patients’ health information for continuity of care. It further reveals that lack of good working environment, inadequate equipment and tools, and too much workload due to inadequate personnel are factors affecting healthcare providers in providing effective health care services to the patient. It was recommended that; there should be a good public relation system for good communication between the patient and the healthcare providers, also provision of a good working environment should be provided for effective patient care, adequate health care providers should be employed in healthcare organizations to over too much work load on healthcare providers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification - - - - - - - - - i
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Abstract - - - - - - - - - iv
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - v
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 3
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - 4
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - 4
1.5 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - 5
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 5
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms - - - - - 6
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 7
2.2 Characteristics of Healthcare Providers - - - - 7
2.2.1 Health Providers Characteristics - - - - - 8
2.2.2 Characteristics of Exemplary healthcare Providers as a Team - 10
2.3 Quality/Effective Health Care Delivery - - - - 10
2.3.1 Effective Health Care Delivery - - - - - 12
2.4 Factors Influencing Healthcare Delivery - - - - 13
2.5 Patient Satisfaction and Quality Healthcare Services - - - 14
2.5.1 Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction - - - - 14
2.6 Roles of the Healthcare Providers on Effective Patient Care - 15
2.6.1 Professional Roles Play by Health Providers - - - 16
2.7 Barrier/Challenges on Effective Patient Care - - - 17
2.7.1 Lack of Advancement Opportunities - - - - - 18
2.7.2 Work Overload - - - - - - - 18
2.7.3 Poorly Salary - - - - - - - 19
2.7.4 Poor Organizational Culture - - - - - - 19
2.7.5 Lack of Monitoring - - - - - - - 19
2.7.6 Not Enough Time with Patient - - - - - 19
2.7.7 Lack of Training - - - - - - - 20
2.7.8 Limited or not Enough Equipment and Access to Technology - 20
2.7.9 Poor Personal Fit with Boss - - - - - - 20
2.8 Need for Training among Healthcare Provider in Healthcare
Delivery System - - - - - - - 20
2.8.1 Component of Training - - - - - - 22
220.127.116.11 Training is Planned and Organized - - - - - 22
18.104.22.168 Training is a Process - - - - - - - 22
22.214.171.124 Training develops Ability - - - - - - 22
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 23
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - 23
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 23
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique - - - - 24
3.5 Data Collection Instrument - - - - - - 24
3.6 Reliability and Validity of Instrument - - - - 24
3.7 Data Collection Procedure - - - - - - 24
3.8 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 25
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 26
4.2 Data of Respondents Socio-Demographic Data - - - 26
4.3 Analysis of Findings - - - - - - - 30
4.4 Discussion of Analysis - - - - - - 34
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 36
5.2 Summary - - - - - - - - 36
5.3 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 36
5.4 Recommendation - - - - - - - 37
1.1 Background of the Study
Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, illness, injury and other. Physical and mental impairment in human being (patient).
Healthcare is delivered by healthcare professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health fields. Healthcare providers are commonly grouped into health professions within each field of expertise, practitioner are often classified according to skill level and said specialization. Health professionals or providers are highly workers in profession that usually required extensive knowledge including preventive, curative, promotive, or rehabilitative health care services to patient. These category of healthcare services are provided by physicians, physicians assistants, dentists, midwives, radiographers, health information managers, registered nurses, pharmacists, physiotherapists, opetometrists, operating department and others allied health workers (WHO, 2006).
The medical aspects of patientcare are much better understood by most healthcare providers. This is dependent on the quality of medical and technical expertise and the equipment and quality assurance systems in practice. Effective healthcare improves the quality of healthcare by providing the best available evidence on the outcomes, benefits and harms, and appropriateness of drugs, devices and healthcare professionals (providers), patient, policy maker and healthcare systems. (WHO, 2006). Hence, to achieved the goal of effective healthcare provision to the patient, healthcare providers have a great role to play through establishing certain characteristics towards provision of healthcare services to the patient. The quality of patient care is essentially determined by the quality of infrastructure, quality of training, competence of personnel and efficiency of operational systems. (et eta, 2014).
Healthcare activities are enormous and they are carried out within certain established principles and ethics, which are binding on practices, and enforced by the law courts in case of dispute. Healthcare providers are the backbone of our health care for the comfort of the sick.
(et eta, 2014) a professional with excellent characteristics not only makes him or her a good person but also an exceptional worker in the field, and will be the subject of administration. Some characteristics might even be required in a person so that he or she will be able to perform effectively. It is suggested that those who wish to engage in healthcare carrier should have the following characteristics; Good communication skills, emotionally stable, compassionate, adaptable in terms of work hours. Detail oriental, good inter personal skills, good physical endurance, critical thinker, alert, and respectful. Nowadays, patients are rarely looked after by just one health provider. In context of a complex healthcare system, an effective team work is essential for patient safety and effective response as in minimizes adverse events caused by miscommunication with others caring for the patient, and misunderstanding of roles and responsibilities. Patients are undoubtedly interested in their own care and must be part of the communication process too, their early and active involvement has been also shown to minimize errors and potential adverse event. Good healthcare providers are good communications, they are able to truly listen to their patient empathically and provide information about diagnosis and treatment in a waytheir patients will understand. Good health care providers are human to rain (that is, they are always ready to put their patient needs first).
A patient must have confidence in the competence of their physician and must feel that they can confide in him or her for most physicians, the establishment of good rapport with a patient is important. Some medical specialties, such as psychiatry and family medicine emphasize the physician-patient relationship more than others, such as pathology or radiology which have very little contact with patients. The quality of patient – doctor relationship is important to both parties. (Michael, 1951).
The default medical practice for showing respect to patients and their families is for the doctor to be truthful in informing the patient of their health and to be direct in asking for the patient’s consent before giving treatment. The process of turn taking between healthcare providers and the patients has a profound impact on the relationship between them. In most scenarios a doctor will walk into the room in which the patient is being held and will ask a variety of questions involving the patient’s history, examination and diagnosis. These are often the foundation of the relationship between the doctor and the patient as this interaction tends to be the first they have together and this can go as long way into impacting the future relationship throughout the patient care. (Rita Charon, 2001).
According to council of Accountability physician practices (CAPP), patient – providers relationships have recently emerged as cornerstone of quality healthcare. Consumer believe patient – provider relationships are the single most important factor in quality care.
A provider who meets individual patients needs is part of building a quality provider relationship. Patients are generally looking for a provider who is knowledge, listens to patient concerns, explains medical concepts clearly and in layterms, and spends as much as time as necessary during care (APP, 2017).
Good healthcare provider also have a strong sense of service of wanting to help people feel better, making healthcare work better, and in many cases back to their communities. Above all, good healthcare professionals are motivated by a strong sense of professionalism. They have integrity and honour and are committed to upholding medicine’s timeless values (Seishin Zasshi, 2011).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The goal of healthcare is to provide medical resources of high quality to all who need them i.e. patient. That is to ensure good quality of life to prevent illnesses when possible to extent of life expectancy. Effectiveness and satisfaction in health provision is the desire of all patient in healthcare facilities.
Effective healthcare service to patient is becoming increasingly low mostly in the secondary healthcare level the quality of care is to extent relying on the care providers.
The healthcare providers play an important role in the delivery of effective healthcare services to the patient. Hence, there are some characteristics which govern the healthcare providers in the provision of healthcare services and failure to adhere to their various professional ethics and practices will result in medical malpractices, negligent and eventually in effective patient care.
The problem of not adhering professional ethics result in misconduct, poor characteristics during patient care. Some of the healthcare providers are not conversant with their professional ethics, that is, they do not know the ethics which governs their profession and they are not guided with principles which may perhaps help them demonstrate good characteristics during patient for effective care of patient. Thus, if health care providers possess good characteristics patient care will be effective.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the characteristics of healthcare providers on effective patient’s care, while the specific objectives include;
1. To determine the roles of healthcare providers in effective patient’s care.
2. To examine problems affecting healthcare provides in providing effective patients care.
3. To assess the level of patient satisfaction in services render to them.
4. To evaluate the standard in health care system which brings about effective health care to patient.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the roles of health care providers in effective patient care?
2. What are the problems affecting healthcare providers in providing effective health care to the patient?
3. What is the level of satisfaction patient have in services render to them?
4. What are the standard in health care which brings about effective healthcare to patient?
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work is conducted at General Hospital Ikot Ekpene, a secondary healthcare facility in Akwa Ibom State which is bounded by Obot Okara to the South, Ikono to the West, the State capital Uyo to the East, and Essien Udim to the North.
Health professional such as health information managers, Doctors and Nurses, Pharmacist, Laboratory Scientist were used for the research. The total population of staff are 28 but the research made used of 120 samples which comprises both made and female from the various department.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is summarized as follows
1. The study is necessary as it would be useful to the healthcare providers to know their important and roles in providing healthcare to the patient and that their good characteristics will bring about effective healthcare delivery to the patient.
2. The result of the study will serves as an encouragement to the patients that the health care providers and the healthcare system at large always works towards rending effective healthcare services to them and to enhance patient relationship and trust for healthcare.
3. The outcome of the study will be useful to the health policy maker to enforce laws pertaining to health care providers especially laws on good characteristics among health care providers to the patient care in Nigeria.
4. The finding on the study could among other serves as sources of information or reference materials to any future researcher and student on the topic or related field in different settings.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
⦁ Characteristics: A feature or quality belonging typically to a person, people or thing and serving to identify them.
⦁ Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of an individual not mercy in the absence of disease or infirmity.
⦁ Healthcare: This is the maintenance, or improvement of health via the diagnosis, treatment and preventive of disease, illness, injury and other physical and mental impairment in human beings.
⦁ Health care Providers: Is an individual who provide preventing, curative, promotional or rehabilitative, healthcare services in a systematic way to people, families or communities..