This project work focused on the relationship between drug abuse and tone of discipline in secondary schools in Owa East Local Government Area of Edo State.

    In order to achieve an organized and peaceful school environment and maintain law and order in our society, the place of discipline among students in our secondary schools cannot be over-emphasized.  It is also necessary to direct students to exhibit acceptable attitudes and behavior within and outside the school.  It was discovered in this research work that to be able to curb the menace of drug abuse in society, teachers, parents/guardians, school administrators, and the government at all levels have a role to play.

    A survey research design was used in the execution of this research study.  The questionnaire was administered to elicit data from respondents.

    It was revealed by this study that discipline in school enhances effective teaching and learning processes.  It was also revealed that drug abuse among secondary school students is a result of the drug culture created by parents.  As it is commonly believed that children will always emulate the example set for them by their parents.  A child whose parents smoke or drink alcohol will definitely drink and smoke because his/her parents do.  Therefore, parents should endeavor to set a good example for their children to emulate.


Title Page                                        i

Certification                                     ii

Dedication                                        iii

Acknowledgment iv

Abstract                                        vi


Background to the Study                            1

Statement of the Problem                            9

Research Questions                                9

Hypotheses                                    10

Objectives of Study                                10

Significance of Study                            11

Delimitation of Study                            12

Limitation of Study                                13

Definition of Terms                                13


Overview of Drug Abuse                            16

Types of Drug                                    20

Causes of Drug Abuse                                23

Effects of Drug Abuse                                25   

Symptoms of Drug Abuse                            27   

Strategies for Controlling Drug Abuse                    28   

Overview of Tone of Discipline                        29   

The Role of Government in Enforcing Discipline in

Secondary Schools                                36   

The Role of Parents/Guardians in Enforcing Discipline        37

The Role of the Teacher in Administering Discipline            38  


Research Design                                    41   

Population                                        42

Sample and Sampling Procedure                        43   

Questionnaire                                    43   

Administration of Instrument                        44   


Presentation and Analysis of Data                        45   

Discussion of Findings                                59   


Summary                                        63   

Conclusion                                        65   

Recommendations                                66   

References                                        69   

Appendixes                                    70   



Background to the Study

    From independence, the secondary school system of education in Nigeria experienced a high level of discipline.  The attitudes and behavior of secondary school students were worthy of emulation.

    In recent times, the high level of discipline experienced in our secondary school system has drastically declined to result in all kinds of social vices including drug abuse.  That is the reason the researcher has decided to find out the relationship between drug abuse and tone of discipline in secondary schools in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State.

    The importance of discipline in our secondary schools cannot be over-emphasized.  Students are priceless assets and the most essential elements in education.  It is absolutely necessary to direct students to exhibit acceptable attitudes and behavior within and outside the school.

    In an attempt to achieve an organized and peaceful school environment and maintain law and order, government and school management specify rules and regulations to guide the activities of students in the school.

    Schools’ indiscipline seems to be ubiquitous in the 21st century in Nigeria.  Students’ discipline is a part of socialization.  With the recent increase in school enrolment, students' discipline problems are bound to accentuate and cause more burdens on school administrators.

    Teachers and school heads are equally expected to discharge their duties and responsibility in the context of the laws, rules, and regulations.  The education system in general is a productive undertaking with inputs processes, outputs, and objectives.  The processing of the inputs is aimed at producing outputs that reflect the attainment of the objectives for which the school was set up.  The harmonious interaction of teachers and students is very important for the successful realization of the goals and purposes of education based on National Policy on Education.

What then is discipline?

    Imaguezor (1997) sees discipline as a process of training and learning that fosters growth and development with laid down rules of the society to which all members must conform, and the violation of which is questionable and also punished.  The aim of discipline is to help the individual to be well adjusted, happy, and useful to himself and to society.  To be discipline means to instruct a person to follow a particular code of conduct that is acceptable to society.

    Discipline, according to Jemibewon (1976) is a highly desirable quality of a human being or social group.  Disciplined behavior is accepted as an essential characteristic of any educated or cultured person.  Discipline, therefore, is a subject of great concern to parents, teachers, and administrators who are interested in the molding of the character of students in the secondary school system.

    In Nigeria, there appears to be a great concern about the lack of discipline in our schools.  However, the problem of widespread indiscipline among primary school pupils and secondary school students is clearly noticed. Every year serious cases of rioting, arson, and damages to school property occur in many schools.  IN spite of the extreme cases of indiscipline that attract newspaper headlines, there are routine cases of truancy, disobedience, absenteeism, drug abuse, fighting, and other examples of indiscipline in the classroom which do not appear or are not reported in newspapers.  Indiscipline among students in secondary schools has attracted much attention from parents who blame teachers for the indiscipline among school pupils and students, from teachers who blame the parents for not playing their roles as pares and also government and school administrators for improper legislation and enforcement of school rules and regulations.

    Nigeria, like every other nation, wants to live in peace and harmony with her fellow country people regardless of their various ethnic groups and religious affiliation.  Today, education has contributed and attracted increased government attention among other priorities.  If education will continue to attract government attention, then, discipline must be maintained in our secondary schools and the school system in general since learning and teaching cannot effectively take place under a threatening atmosphere.

    Today, acts of indiscipline: riot, vandalism, lawlessness, and the breakdown of law and order have become a way of life of our present school system.  What then could be responsible for these acts of indiscipline in our school system?

    World Health Organization (WHO, 1980) expert committee on drug dependence defined drug abuse as “a state psychic and sometimes also physical resulting from the interaction between a drug and a living organism characterized by behavioral and other responses that always include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis in how to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence, tolerance may be dependent on more than one drug.  There may be physiological changes produced in the body as a result of continued consumption of a particular drug.

    Reports on Public Health Technical Report Series (1982) defined drug as a substance that acts on a person central nervous system to produce a change in sensations, mood, and perception, such drugs need not have any recognized medical value but the changes they induce are usually at the early state of pleasurable use.

    Generally, drug abuse can be said to be the use of any drug usually self-administered, in a way that deviates from the approved medical, social or cultural pattern, drug abuse and use especially among secondary school students can prevent the building of useful and successful life.  That is, it may lead to giving up from a historical perspective, the drug abuse scale in Nigeria continues to change.

    Drug abuse has specific effects on the brain, it can somewhat vary depending on the drug that is being used, virtually every drug that is abused has an effect on the executive functioning areas of the brain.  Drug abuse particularly affects the brain’s ability to inhibit actions that the person would otherwise delay or prevent.

    This study will unveil the relationship between drug abuse and the tone of discipline in secondary schools, how inappropriate administration of discipline or lack of discipline or laisser-faire attitude on the part of both parents and teachers is the root cause of drug abuse in secondary schools.

Statement of the Problem

    The problem is the relationship between drug abuse and tone of discipline in secondary schools in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State.  This study is to identify the students’ discipline problems such as truancy, stealing, fighting, drug abuse, and other social vices.  The factors are responsible for these indiscipline acts and how to remedy their negative effect on the school and the society.

Research Questions

1.    Is drug abuse and tone of discipline correlated?

2.    Is teachers’ job dissatisfaction and tone of discipline correlated?

3.    Is peer group influence and drug abuse correlated?

4.    Is the inconsistent enforcement of discipline and drug abuse correlated?


1.    There is no significant difference between drug abuse and tone of discipline in secondary schools.

2.    There is no significant difference between teacher’s job dissatisfaction and tone of discipline in secondary schools.

3.    There is no significant difference between peer group influence and drug abuse.

4.    There is no significant difference between the inconsistent enforcement of discipline and drug abuse.

Objectives of the Study

    The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between drug abuse and the tone of discipline in secondary schools in Owan East  Local Government Area of Edo State.

    The study is therefore expected to sample the opinion of teachers and students about drug abuse and tone of discipline.     The study will also find out the different types of drugs that are being abused.

    This study will also look at the tone of discipline in secondary schools today and the tone of discipline in secondary schools in the last few decades, why the differences if there are.

Significance of the Study

    It is hoped that this research work will help students to build their personality and also the outcome of this research is expected to be of immense help to the students, teachers, parents/guardians, and the entire local government at large.

    The findings of this research work will be useful to the Ministry of Education in the Owan East Local Government Area on how to improve on the present way of enlightenment on drug abuse and also the proper enforcement of disciplinary measures on students in secondary schools.

    Finally, the researcher hoped that the findings of this research work will be useful to secondary schools within and outside Owan East Local Government Area.

Delimitation of the Study

    This study was designed to cover all the secondary schools in Owan East Local Government Area.  The population of the study was all the principals, vice-principals, teachers, and students from each school but for the sampling purpose, four secondary schools are used.  The principals, some selected teachers, and students are used for the study.

Limitation of the Study

    The researcher was restricted by a number of factors which include:

1.    Finance:  There was no money to go into different areas of the research work.

2.    Unwillingness on the part of some students not to co-operate with the work as some feel that certain questions are inappropriate as far as they are concerned.

3.    Time factor

Definition of Terms

Threatened:     To express a threat of harm or violence.

Vandalism:    The crime of destroying or damaging something especially public property.

Depression:    The feeling of sadness

Alertness:    To make sometimes very different

Permeates:      To affect every part of something.

Elixir:    A magic liquid that is believed to cure illnesses or to make people live forever.

Cutch:    Something or person that gives you help or support but often makes you depend on them too much.

Omnipotence:  Feeling of having total power.

Bankrupt:    Without enough money to pay what you owe.

Infiltrates:  To pass slowly into something.

Extinction:  A situation where something stops existing.

Rehabilitate:  To help someone to have a normal useful life again.

Penalty:  Punishment for breaking a law.

Controversial:    Causing a lot of angry public discussion and disagreement.

Climate:    A general attitude or feeling which exists in a particular place.

Bully:    A person who uses their strength or power to frighten or hurt weaker people.

Accentuate:    To make something more noticeable.

Burdens:    Duties or responsibilities that cause worries.

Treacherous:    Something that cannot be trusted.

Awkward:        Make somebody feel embarrassed.

Contravene:    To do something that is not allowed by law.

Cache:    A hidden store of things such as weapons.



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