PERCEIVED DETERMINANTS OF AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR LOW SPORTS PARTICIPATION AMONG STAFF AND STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGER STATE


PERCEIVED DETERMINANTS OF AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR LOW SPORTS PARTICIPATION AMONG STAFF AND STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGER STATE  

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to examine Perceived determinants of and intervention strategies for low sports participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state. The study ascertained Perceived determinants of and intervention strategies for low sports participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state. The study used a descriptive survey research design. Population of the study comprised 49298 from 11 tertiary institutions in Niger State.  1020 respondents were sampled from six tertiary institutions. The instruments used for data collection were structured questionnaire based on the literature reviewed on Perceived Determinants of Low Sports Participation. The Questionnaires was validated by five experts three from Human Kinetics and Health Education Department and two from Department of Psychology Faculty of Social Sciences University of Nigeria Nsukka. The questionnaire (PDLSPQ) was rated on a four point scale ranging from Strongly Agree (SA) = 4, Agree (A) =3, Disagree (D) = 2 and strongly disagree (SD) = 1. Eight specific objectives and eight research questions  guided the study while six null hypotheses were formulated. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data was analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The method used for data analysis was the statistical package for social sciences (IBM SPSS version 22). The findings revealed that both students and staff of tertiary institutions agreed that perceived determinants of low participation include, psychological determinants, such as motivation, reward and interest; socio-cultural determinants such as; family background, peer group influence and religion also administrative determinants; such as facilities and equipment, quality of sports personnel.  Intervention strategies suggested were training of coaches, recruitment of qualified sports personnel and   provision of sport facilities.The study recommended that government and stakeholders should provide intervention strategies like provision of sports facilities, training of coaches, employment of qualified sports administrators among others in other to improve sports participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions. It was concluded that the perception of both students and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State on perceived Psychological, Socio-cultural and Administrative Determinants of low sports participation was high and have impact on low sports participation among students and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State.    

Table of Contents

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL PAGE ii

CERTIFICATION iii

DEDICATION iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

LISTOF APPENDICES x

LIST OF TABLES xi

ABSTRACT xiii

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

Background to the study 1

Statement of the problem 10

Purpose of the study 11

Research questions 11

Hypotheses 12

Significance of the study 13

Scope of the study 14

CHAPTER TWO: Review of related literature

Conceptual framework 16

Concept of sports participation 16

Theoretical framework 16

Concept of Sports and sports participation 16

Benefits and Role of Sports Participation 18

Perception and Intervention strategies in sports 20

Tertiary institution 22

Determinants of sports participation 23

Administrative determinants of sports participation 23

Psychological determinants 26

Socio-cultural determinants 27

Theoretical framework                                                                                         

Achievement goal theory 32

Self-determination theory 33

Empirical Studies                                                             36

Summary of Literature Review 34

CHAPTER THREE: Methods

Research Design 47

Area of Study 47

Population for the Study 47

Sample and Sampling Technique 48

Instrument for Data Collection 49

Validity of the Instrument 50

Reliability of the Instrument 50

Method of Data Collection 50

Method of Data Analysis 51

CHAPTER FOUR: Results and Discussion

Results 52

Summary of findings             63  

Discussion of findings 65

Implication of the Findings of this Study of Academic Field and Society 68 

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, conclusion and recommendation        

Summary 70

Conclusion 72

Recommendation 72

Suggestion for Further Studies 73

References 74

Appendices

Appendix A: Population distribution of staff and students in the 11 tertiary 

institutions in Niger state 87

APPENDIX B: List of 6 sampled institutions in Niger State 88

Appendix C: List of selected sampled tertiary Institution and faculties/schools 89

APPENDIX D: Faculties/Schools and Departments of the selected sample Universities, Colleges of education and Polytechnics 90

APPENDIX E: List of selected Students and Staff 91

Appendix F: Perceived Determinants of Low Sports Participation 

Questionnaire (PDLSPQ) 92

Appendix G: Perceived Intervention strategies questionnaire (PISQ) 95

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background to the study

In recent times, there has been a general concern regarding participation in sports among diverse populations. In United States, despite the recognized benefits of an active lifestyle, an alarming proportion of American population is not participating in regular physical activities, for instance, low participation in sports among youths in general has remained a topical subject that requires urgent attention (United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), 1996). In Nigeria, the situation appears the same, as research has indicated a great reduction in physical activity and locomotion among people due to mechanization and substitution of job performance facilities for the physical efforts (Okeneye,2002;Joshua, Samson-Akapan, Eyo and Joshua, 2012; Eshraji, Kashef and Mehric, 2012). Other studies have shown that there exists low participation level in physical activity and sports among population including Staff and students of tertiary Institution in Nigeria. (Etuk, 2006; Eshragai, Kashef and Mehri, 2012). 

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Most populations have become increasingly inactive, doing exercise only within their limited leisure-time. In Nigeria, despite the overwhelming evidence of the positive effects of physical activity .Samson-Akpan, Eyo and Joshua (2013) reported that more than 60% of adults fail to exercise regularly and 25% of them were not active at all. In the same vein, Etuk (2007), Onohwakpor and Eboh, (2006), posited that regular physical activity and sports are generally lacking among Nigerians. The authors further asserted that lecturers in particular do not take part in regular physical activities. Ugwuoke (1978) carried out a survey to determine the extent to which Nigerian female students participated in sports and found that only negligible percentages of female students participate in interscholastic sports while a slightly higher percentage participated in intramural. Similarly, Dike (1981) found out that most female participated in a limited number of activities. As a result of these disturbing situation, promotion of physical exercises and sports participation by governments became important objectives with respect to public health since participation in sports and physical activities is one of the most cost-effective ways of preventing illness caused by sedentary lifestyle (Patrick, Spear, Holt,& Sfia, 2001). Determining the factors which influence low sports participation and physical activity could provide insight into ways of improving participation in sports.

Sports are recreational or competitive activities that involve some amount of physical strength or skill that has a form of disport meaning, a diversion and an amusement. Coakley (2001) defined sports as institutionalized competitive activities that involve rigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex skills by participants motivated by personal enjoyment and external rewards. Sports are institutionalized physical activity in which rules are fixed externally and beforehand (Appleby and Foster, 2013). In its broader concept it embraces athletics, games, play, gymnastics and activities of an individual and team variety, competitive and non-competitive (Bennett, 1975). Sports is therefore conceptualized in this study, as organized physical activities involving physical exertion carried out for competition, pleasure and exercise usually in special areas and according to fix rules which include fun and recreation for students and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State. 

Sports are one of the most celebrated and contested activities in our society. From the ancient times to the present in many societies, sports have served in many social, religious, economic, physical and health functions (Appleby and Foster, 2013). Sport is a critical element of development and enterprise in our modern society. According to Appleby and Foster (2013), sports have been used as spectacle for public entertainment and social purposes and have provided professional opportunities for athletes and coaches to be meaningfully engaged economically. The context of sports when associated with good coaching helps participants acquire positive personal characteristics such as moral development, leadership and pro-social sporting behaviour (Weinberg and Gould, 2011). In recent years, sports have also served as catalyst for social change such as in decreasing racial barriers, gender gaps and inequities related to socio-economic status. Sports are played by individuals and participation in sports has been shown to lead to a number of health related, social and emotional benefits for both children and adults (Strong et al., 2005).With regard to health-related benefits, Elendu and Akpa, (2012), opined that one of the preventive approach to non-communicable diseases and means of ensuring quality and quantity of life is through regular participation in appropriate physical activities and sports. It is reported that individuals who remain physically active or physical fit during middle age and older age live longer than their sedentary counterpart (Karmisholt and Gotzescle, 2005). Social and emotional benefits of sports participation include positive outcomes such as formation of positive relationships and acquisition of social interaction, teamwork skills, as well as enhanced confidence, character, pro-social values and positive affect (Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity, and Payne, 2013). Participation in sports facilitates other positive outcomes.

According to Chambers Dictionary, (2010), determinants are factors or causes that make something happen or directly lead to a decision. However, perception deals with the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to enable one recognize meaningfully objects and events (Myres, 2010) & (Pharr and Lough, 2014).  In this study, perceived determinants connote awareness of factors which individuals consider to influence low participation in sports among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state.  

Many factors have been considered by different researchers as determinants of sports participation among diverse population. For example, Wusk, Humpel, Owen and Leslie (2002), suggested that environmental factors have consistent association with physical activity behaviour. The authors asserted that accessibilities, opportunities and aesthetics attributes as having significant associations with sports and physical activities. Bottenberg (2015), on the other hand, reported personal factors of interest, attitude, motivation, time, commitment, age and social support as significant correlates of sports participation by students in colleges and universities. Researchers such as Wann (1997), Sallis and Owen (1999), Sallis, Procheska and Taylor (2000) and Sabo (2008), have identified media, family (parents’ and siblings), peers, gender, physical education teachers and community members as influencing children participation in sports and physical activities and gender. Based on the diverse views regarding determinants of sports participation, it therefore became necessary and for ease investigation to group these factors into three different generic themes namely; Administrative, Psychological and Socio-cultural determinants of sports participation.

Administrative determinants of sports participation are all forms of leadership style that influence the success or otherwise of sports participation. Administrative determinants of sports participation reflect those that relate to sports facilities and equipment, personnel availability and funding of sports programme (Abdul, 2003 and Omolawon 2000).

 Standard facilities are essential prerequisite to students’ participation in sports. Omolawon, (2000) and Abdul (2003) explained that availability of facilities will also make recreational opportunities possible for individual. They posited that different types of activities require different facilities. Therefore, in order to participate effectively in physical activity, effective planning and provision of adequate facilities must be provided. 

Equipment for any sports programme consist all durable materials. Kubayi and Moyeki, (2011) stated that, good sports programme could function at full effectiveness only when they are supported with sufficient equipment in good condition. Ituh, (1992), stated that equipment for sports are those supplies and movable items used to make participation and learning practically, interesting and easy. The author further to mentioned sports equipment and supplies to include: balls, rackets, hockey sticks, hurdle flights and soccer boots, gymnastic box, foot wear, and nets. Physical education and sports equipment includes all movable gadgets or materials which can be categorized into three broad groups namely, personal, instructional and games equipment; personal equipment, such as costumes, towels lockers etc. Instructional equipment, include gymnastic equipment, scale, include Games equipment like, balls, rackets, nets, health and first aid supplies.

Aside facilities and equipment, the quality of sports personnel is another major administrative determinant of sports participation. In line with this, Omolawon (2003) stated that most Nigeria higher institutions do not have enough coaches therefore; the availability of qualified personnel with good temperament will go a long way to affect participation in sports. Owolabi (1993) suggested that personnel who have technical and scientific knowledge of a particular sport should be allowed to handle those sports.

Funding of sports activities is a key determinant of sports participation. It is important to stress that adequate funding of sports programmes will go a long way in improving the performance and standard of sport in our educational institutions. Omolawon (2003) stated that fund is an appetizer which stimulates excellence in participation and performance. Sports are capital intensive in the sense that, sports require equipment, supportive services, specialized methods and specially trained coaches and physical educators. Okpaku (1997) highlighted why funding of sports has become difficult, among other reasons were; high price of equipment and supplies, the need to finance the standard facilities in institutions of high learning, cost of athletic meetings and rising cost of labour, teachers, coaches, and other personnel. Venketeswarlu (2006) opined that, the inflated cost of construction of facilities and buying equipment and the increasing cost of organizing sports programmes in all the sectors demands a fresh and innovative approach to the funding of sports. Due to high cost of procuring equipment, the construction of facilities and their maintenance, as well as the recruitment of staff, funds must be generated. Igbanugo (1992) suggested that, other avenues should be explored to source for funds since no institution of learning can fund sporting activities efficiently from the annual or monthly over-head cost or subventions.

Another form of determinants of sports participation is the psychological determinant. Psychological determinants of sports participation include factors that associate with attitude, interest, motivation and reward. 

Learners and adolescents have variety of reasons why they participate in organized sports with “having fun” being the most important reasons in motivating sports participation. The most frequent form of motivation would be intrinsic, or internally based, rather than external. The overall motivation of youth in physical activity and sports settings is their attribution to success and failure as sports achievers. Their attributes are important because they can affect their emotions, expectations for the future and reasons to remain motivated. (Ezeadin, 2012), learners who are involved in competitive sports develop more internal attributes for success than external attributes for both failure and success in sports.

Rewards are legitimate educational tools, methods and they are symbolic token used to recognize successful individuals and team achievements in sports. Akintunde (2001), stressed the importance of award as the key to success in any sports programme. The author opined that, awards are psychological motivation that should come first as one of the prerequisites for effective sports administration, among all other factors. Awards are used as an incentive in all fields of endeavours and since this is true of other areas, it should be used in promoting students and staff in tertiary institutions sports to conform to the traditional system of recognizing one’s outstanding performance. Interest and attitude also play an important role in peoples’ lives. Individuals engaged more in sporting activities that they find interesting and form positive attitude toward those activities. There are other individuals who applaud the award system. They maintained that awards stimulate interest, serve as incentives for participants and recognize achievements (Akintunde, 2001). Participants in competition and recreational sports have different reasons for doing so. Some participate because of the incentives associated with participation; some athletes go into sports for ego boosting. Sports awards could be either intrinsic or extrinsic in nature. The motive of participation therefore, depends on individual athletes.

Socio-cultural determinants are another form of determinants of sports participation. They relate to those factors of sports participation that relates to peer group influence, influence of the family, and religious influence. 

Sporting activities received by peer groups through participation in extra-curricular activities stimulate the desire for the continued status and recognition that are associated with these activities beyond high school. Peer group provides experience that helps the youths to become independent of parents and other figures and expose the students’ ideas, values and experiences through sporting activities that may be encouraged in nuclear family (Hartmann, 2008).

Peer group operates to influence sports-related aspects of individual life-style. During childhood, peer groups are found in the immediate neighbourhood and tend to be somewhat similar in values to the individual. During the adolescence years, in education system, peer groups are located within the school and therefore, may include individual with different values and interests and during childhood, the influence of peer group normally comprises of peers at the place of work, in the neighbourhood and home providing greater likelihood of their being diversity, interest and values concerning sports (Brustard, 1996).

Socio-economic status (SES) is associated with physical activities participation, with those adolescents from high socio-economic status household and or neighborhood more likely to participate in physical activity (Gorden-Larsen, McMurray, and Popkin 2000).There is evidence that adolescents whose parents have attain higher education levels are more likely to participate in organized sports, structural exercises and games play in their leisure time than those with parents with lower education level (Ommundsen, Klass-Heggebo, and Andersen, 2006).

Family support and support from peers are the key inter personal factors which significantly influence adolescents’ physical activities behaviour (Luban, Silva & Morgan, 2007) including participation in leisure sports. However, there is inconclusive evidence regarding the changing nature of perceived family support across the transitional period of adolescent. It has been proposed that family support is more important for older adolescents (Lubans et al, 2007) whilst other researchers have found no difference in the level of perceived parental supports by age (Bauer, Nelson, Boutelle & Neumark-sztainer, 2008). Active participation in sports largely depends upon the supports, interaction and encouragement received from parents, siblings, teachers and the environment. In essence, youths who received support to participate in sports perform better than those who receive-neutral or negative reinforcement (Brustard, 1996).

To participate in sports, students need the great support and encouragement of their family members. Babatunde (2001) asserted that, the child has to seek parental approval and  avoid disapproval in his or her day-to-day behaviour such as learning the various skills, attainment of knowledge, development of attitude and introduction to competitive and recreational sports. Sohi (1998) opined that parents have been observed as more influential in socializing their children into sports. Sohi also observed that, influence of the family status on students’ participation in sports cannot be underestimated since family is the first setting for informal education of a child. In addition, the family is in a better position to form the values which their offspring both male and female should have towards sports participation.

Religion is a socially shared set of beliefs and rituals that people use to transcend the materials world and give meaning to important aspect of their lives. Coackley, (2007), stated that religion as a set of beliefs and rituals are unique because people connect religion with a sacred and supernatural realm and accept these connections on faith, which is the fundamental for all religions and religious beliefs. Because religious beliefs and rituals are shared, they can provide a basis for group integration and unity, and because they are related to the sacred and super natural, they can be used as a powerful basis for social control on both the individual and groups levels. It is partly because of the influence of sports on human existence that religious beliefs have been infused used in certain sports context.

 Islam rejects all games and sports that stir sexual urge, or encourage moral perversion such as a woman practicing dancing and being watched by the public. Islam does not allow matches or games that involve both sexes, in a way that open channels for seduction, temptation, and corruption. Sheikh (2011) noted that males are to practice sports that suit their nature and vice-versa. In Islam according to Sheikh, it is forbidden for females to practice sports that are for men. This injunction explains the absence of Muslim male and female in full sports participation in high educational institutions. In some families where Christian norms are strictly followed and treasured, women are forced to be shy, gentle and fragile. According to Adedeji (1981) Nigeria born again Christian women hardly watched games like their counterparts in Europe and America for the fear of being branded tomboy. The author stated further that men had a hostile attitude towards women who attempted to socialize with men on the same level of activity. The hostile attitude, according to Adedeji (1981) opined that, has it root from religion, indigenous culture and partly from acquired western culture. Hence, active participation in sports among students and staff were based on gender, age, sex, status, race and background of individual staff and students of tertiary institutions

Tertiary institutions are referred to as Institutions of higher learning, organizations, establishments or educational environment where different transactions irrespective of gender, age, sex, status, race and background, individuals from different places interact at a higher level and share common understanding, views, issues and ideas in other to gain knowledge (Olajide, 1998). Examples of such institutions are universities, colleges of education, polytechnics, schools of Health, sports institutions etc. The characteristics of these environments are mainly research work, knowledge provision. One of the major extra -curricular activities which are present in most institutions of higher learning is sports. Students and staff of institutions of higher learning who partake in sports and physical activities do so for many reasons including keeping of physical fitness and avoidance of illness (Barmman, Bellew, Vita, Brown & Owen, 2005). Despite the observed benefits associated with participation in sports, a large number of students and staff appear not to participate or participate sparingly in sporting activities (Olajide, 1998). 

        As a result of the observed low participation in sports among students and staff in tertiary institution, the Nigerian government had to enunciate a policy to promote sporting activity in tertiary institution leading to Nigerian universities being directed to set aside a lecture-free-half day for sports (Federal Ministry of Education (FME) 2006). The policy further authorized that sports programme be made an integral and compulsory part of students’ general experience in the first two years of their enrolment. Although this policy of lecture-free period for sports has created the platform for sports participation and engagement, much still needs to be done to ensure actual participation in sports by students and staff in tertiary institutions. In a study by Adesoye and Talabi (2004), it was found that majority of academic staff in Nigerian higher institutions did not participate in leisure time activities due to some social factors such as age, gender, religion, skill level, geographical location. In addition, that academic and occupational demands in Nigerian higher institutions have made it difficult for average students and staff’ to know’ what goes on in a gymnasium or relate positively to activities outside academic programme. This situation may not also be uncommon among students and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State. The challenge therefore, presents the need for intervention strategies to improve low sports participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger State. 

     Intervention reflects a deliberate contribution in a situation of dispute and prevailing problem, to influence events and secure desirable consequences. According to Kubayi, (2013), intervention refers to methods of making appropriate and timely corrections, feedback and other changes in the environment. Intervention does not just happen haphazardly; there must be a plan or strategy. In line with these definitions, strategy is a planned direction or decision in advance about what to do, who is to do it, and what is needed to get a goal accomplished (Muleskinner, 2003). Intervention strategies therefore refer to a planned, careful and purposeful designed activity to improve, promote and develop the environment (Kubayi, 2003). In the context of this study, intervention strategies would mean a planned, careful and purposeful designed activity to improve and promote sports participation among students and staff in tertiary institutions of learning in Niger State.

  Two theories would provide the anchor for this study. They are the achievement goal theory (AGT) by Nicholls, (1989) and the self-determination theory (SDT) propounded by Deci & Ryan (1991). The achievement goal theory postulates that an important prerequisite for motivated behaviour is a desire to feel competent and that the quality of a person’s behaviour is his/her level of competent. Consequently, when generalized to sports, participation in sports as a motivated behaviour would always be determined by the way in which persons (staff and Students) define competence and success in participation and judges his/her capabilities.

       The self-determination theory, which closely relates to Achievement goal theory(AGT) is a general motivation and personality theory whose main idea consist of human behaviour being motivated by three primary and universal psychological needs; autonomy (this includes people’s efforts to feel they originate their actions and can determine their own behaviour). Competence (this consist of controlling the result and experiencing efficiency) and relatedness (refers to the efforts made to relate to others and be concerned for them, as well as feeling accepted by other and experiencing satisfaction with the social world). In this respect, when a person satisfies his/her needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness, his/her self-denied motivation will raise thus, sports participation may increase. On the contrary, if these needs are not satisfied, this will lead to less self-determined forms of motivation and the effect may lead to withdrawal (Vallerand & Rousseau, 2001). These theories therefore enabled the researcher to explain the findings based on different administrative, psychological and socio-cultural factors within the physical activity and sports environment that portend low participation in sport and exercise among Students and staff of Tertiary Institutions in Niger State.

Statement of the problem

Sport as a form of physical activity has so many health benefits in ones’ life. People are expected to engage in regular sporting activities on a daily basis to promote their health benefits, social benefits and to reduction of stress. Sports have some relevance to societal growth, hence, it is widely perceived as unifying force and an integral part of life. Today, the general recognition of the importance of sports has made it become a vehicle for promoting national unity and projecting of the country’s image. 

        Despite the recognized benefits of an active lifestyle, a greater proportion of global population is not participating in regular physical activities and sports. The situation is worrisome and physical inactivity is increasing globally, including Nigeria. Findings of studies have indicated that an average student and staff of tertiary Institutions in Nigeria finds it difficult to participate in sports and other activities outside academic programme due to academic and occupational pressures accompanying the basic duties of students and staff. This situation may not be uncommon in tertiary Institutions of Niger State. Further studies have revealed gender differences in participation.

Several factors have been identified to influence low participation in Sports and Physical Activity among students and staff of tertiary institutions of learning particularly in southern part of Nigeria,. However, none to the best knowledge of the researcher has been undertaken in Niger State. Considering that what people perceived as determinants (factors) of low sports participation varied by culture, environment and geographical location, it become imperative  to ascertain perception of students and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State on factors responsible for low sports participation. Therefore, gaining further insight into the determinants of low participation in sports would provide an opportunity to formulate intervention strategies that would, when implemented contribute to improved sports participation among students and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State.

 In addition there exist limited literature on low participation in sports among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state. There is also a lack of literature in the area of intervention strategies to curb the problem of low sport participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state. Hence, the current study is necessitated to find the perceived determinants of and intervention strategies for low sport participation among staff and students of higher institutions in Niger state, Nigeria

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to ascertain perceived determinants of and intervention strategies for low sports participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state. Specifically, the study sought to:

1) Identify psychological determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by students of tertiary institutions in Niger State;

2) Identify socio-cultural determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by students of tertiary institutions in Niger State;

3) Identify administrative determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by students of tertiary institution in Niger State;

4) Ascertain psychological determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger State;

5) Identify socio-cultural determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State;

6) Ascertain administrative determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State;

7) Based on the identified determinants of low participation in sports, formulate intervention strategies that will improve sports participation among students of tertiary institutions in Niger State; and

8) Identify and formulate specific intervention strategies to improve sports participation among staff in tertiary institutions in Niger State.

Research questions 

Based on the objectives of this study, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

1) What are the psychological determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by students of tertiary institutions in Niger State?

2) What are the socio-cultural determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by students of tertiary institutions in Niger State?

3) What are the administrative determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by students of tertiary institutions in Niger State?

4) What are the psychological determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State?

5) What are the socio-cultural determinants of low participation in sports as perceived by the staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State?

6) What the administrative determinants of low sports participation as perceived by staff of tertiary institutions in Niger state?

7) What are the perceived intervention strategies necessary to improve participation of students in sports in tertiary institutions in Niger state?

8) What are the perceived intervention strategies necessary to improve participation of staff in sports in tertiary institutions in Niger state?

Hypotheses 

The following hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance this is to guide the study.

1) There is no significant difference in perceived psychological determinants of low sports participation between male and female students of tertiary institutions in Niger State.

2) There is no significant difference in perceived socio-cultural determinants of low sports participation between male and female students of tertiary institutions in Niger State.

3) There is no significant difference in perceived administrative determinants of low sports participation between male and female students   of tertiary institutions in Niger State.

4) There is no significant difference in perceived psychological determinants of low sports participation between male and female staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State.

5) There is no significant difference in the perceived socio-cultural determinants of low sports participation between male and female staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State.

6) There is no significant difference in perceived administrative determinants of low sports participation between male and female staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State.

Significance of the study 

The findings of this study would be of both theoretical and practical benefits. Theoretically, the findings would necessitate the use of different motivational and goal achievement theories to explain staff and students’ determinants for low participation in sports and Physical Activity. Practically, when the findings of this study are disseminated through seminar or workshops, sports administrators in schools, physical education teachers, researchers, students and staff of schools and general public will benefit.

Findings from this study would provide empirical data on psychological determinants of low sport participation among staff and students of higher institutions. These data would be used by school administrators for planning of school sport activities. Findings from this study would also provide empirical data on perceived socio-cultural determinants of low sport participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions. These data will also be used by school administrators for planning of school sport activities.

Findings of this study would also provide empirical data on perceived administrative determinants of low sport participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state. Based on this evidence, sports administrators, coaches and government will work to alleviate the level of these determinants in other to improve sports participation among staff and students in tertiary institutions.

Sports administrators in school, physical education teachers would benefit from the study since it would provide empirical data for school administrators to use in sports planning and administration. The implications of the findings of this study would provide reasons and knowledge for perceived determinants of low sport participation in sports which could be used by the administrators to promote programmes that would encourage sports participation. 

Findings of this study would provide evidence on these perceived reasons or factors of low participation in sports, that could help change their perception about sports participation and hence increase the rate of sport participation. Physical education teachers are at the heart of implementing the school’s sports curriculum and so require sufficient data to do so. The findings of this study would provide data on intervention strategies that could be implemented by the Physical Education teachers in the classroom for positive results to be achieved. This in turn would improve sport participation. Research students would require literature for review on different dimensions of perception regarding low participation in sports; hence the findings of this study provide such literature for review by research students.

Intervention strategies if put in place would benefit all. Such strategies like providing facilities would help those whose problem is proximity to facilities to participate in sports. Availability of sporting facilities on its own could boast the participants’ interest in sport; therefore, it would improve sport participation. Provision of rewards and incentives especially to professional athletes would entice others to go into sports; this would also improve sports participation. Also the training and retraining of staff would benefit the staff by improving their wealth of experience which they too would in turn be used by them to train orders and increase participation in sports. All these would be achieved based on empirical data from the findings of this study. Government and school sports administrators would use the empirical data as reasons for providing intervention strategies for low sport participation.  

Scope of the study

The study is conducted in Niger State. The study was delimited to perceived psychological, socio-cultural and administrative determinants of and intervention strategies for low sports participation among staff and students of tertiary institutions in Niger state. The study was also delimited to students and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger state. The study was delimited to independent variable of gender. In addition, the study was delimited to theories such as Achievement Goal Theory (AGT)  and Self-determination Theory (SDT), which are useful in identifying determinants of low sports participation among student and staff of tertiary institutions in Niger State.    

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PERCEIVED DETERMINANTS OF AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES FOR LOW SPORTS PARTICIPATION AMONG STAFF AND STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGER STATE



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