This study was design to investigate the status of Supervision on Primary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. A case study consists of 200 teachers which were selected using simple random sampling method from 12 Schools. A survey design was employed in the study, one research develop instrument title Status of Supervision Question (SSQ) was used to obtain data and two research questions were raised titled what is the status of supervision and t-test analysis of difference of male and female teachers’ approved of supervision were postulated thus, all type of supervision are carried out on primary schools in Etinan Local Government Area in question one and question two indicate that the calculated t of 1.53 was least that the critical of 1.96 at difference of 198 and .05 significant level. 

Therefore the null hypothesis was accepted. Hence there is no significant difference in the assessment of supervision by male and female teachers Etinan Local Government Area. It was recommended among others that the Federal and State Ministries Of Education should design a blue print the will cater for the physiological needs of teachers which must be gratified before any higher needs to ensure teacher’s motivation towards supervision approval and effective supervision on Primary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area.


Title Page 

Declaration - - - - - - - - - i

Certification - - - - - - - - - ii

Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv

Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi

Table of contents - - - - - - - - vii


1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 4

1.3 Purpose of the Study  - - - - - - 5

1.4 Research Question - - - - - - 6

1.5 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - 6

1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - 7

1.7. Delimitation of the Study - - - - - - 7

1.8 Assumption of the Study - - - - - - 8

1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 8


2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 10

2.1 Meaning of Supervision - - - - - - 11

2.2 Types of Supervision - - - - - - - 13

2.3 Supervision and Gender - - - - - - 16

2.4 Supervision and Agenda - - - - - - 17

2.5 Summary of Literature Review - - - - - 20


3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 22

3.1 Area of the Study - - - - - - - 22

3.2 Design of the Study - - - - - - - 24

3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - 25

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - 25

3.5 Instrumentation - - - - - - - - 26

3.6 Validation of the Research Instrument - - - 26

3.7 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - 27

3.8 Administration of the Instrument - - - - 27

3.9 Statistical Treatment of Data - - - - - 28


4.1 Results and Discussion - - - - - - 29

4.2 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - 32


5.1 Summary of the Study - - - - - - 36

5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 37

5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - - 38

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research - - - - 39

       References    - - - - - - - - - 41

Appendix ---------44



1.1 Background of the Study

Over the years, there has been much outcry due to the status of supervision in our country. But little or nothing has been done to salvage this ugly incidence, probably due to lack of adequate information on performance of pupil in certain school’s curriculum with regards to a particular environment or local government. The status of supervision on primary schools therefore becomes necessary. 

Considering the need to restructure our educational system to meet the dynamic nature of the society, Igwe (2001) stated that to supervise means to direct, oversee, guide or to make sure that expected standards are met. Thus, supervision in the school means that the laid down rules regulations, principles are followed to maintain the minimum standard laid for the schools are carried out effectively and efficiently. 

Effective supervision is based on identifying certain areas that if well supervised, it would help improve quality of primary education in Nigeria. Afolabi and Loto (2008) took into cognizance. 

School supervision is part and parcel of educational administration. It is used as a tool for quality control in schools by educational managers essentially;school supervision is an evaluative activity which is directed at school records, school buildings and other teaching facilities, teachers skills of teaching, the management of the school, the school health and welfare facilities etc. It could be full-scale, advisory or a surprise visit officers who perform this function are variously referred to as supervisors and their task are similar, the important being to ensure that pupils are learning in conducive school environment,supervision help supervisor to access and support teachers so as to enhance their efficiency and effectiveness toascertain that public money meant for education is judiciously spent. (Canham, 1983). Also suggest that school supervision is meant to enhance school effectiveness through quality control. (Ezeocha,1985, Ogunsajo 1990). Also observed and evaluate that school supervision is referred to in Nigeria as a means which provide educational supervisorand policy makers with necessary data with which to fine-tune the school system to serve the society better. The need for school supervision is therefore obvious by the nature of their job, supervisors deal directly with teachers most of the time. During lesson observation, pre-and post lesson observation and discussion is guaranteed. The supervisor and the teacher concerned come face to face.

Therefore the interpersonal relationship that is ensured between the supervisor and the teacher cannot be avoided. The relationship may be positive or negative. The success of any supervision exercise is dependent on this relationship between the supervisor and the teacher. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Akwa Ibom State, apart from the study of Emeny; (1995) title status of supervision on Primary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area, research on this field with regards to other Local Government Area have not been carried out. 

It is certain that without such adequate information on the status of supervision in Primary School, no good decision or justification with regards to the level of commitment of resources touch programme could be made such commitment could be in terms of personnel and materials. 

Supervision information serves as a reference point for decision making. Therefore, the researcher aims at assessing how well or otherwise are the status of supervision on Etinan Local Government Area perform on primary schools both at internal and external supervision. 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to find out the status of Supervision on Primary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area with regards to how well or how poor is the status of supervision in primary school on Etinan. Based on the research findings, adequate recommendations will be made on maintaining the status quo. If performances were good and ways of improving. 

1.4 Research Question

(1) What is the status of Supervision on Primary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area?

(2) Do male andfemale primary teachers differ in their appraisal of Supervision in Etinan Local Government Area? 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H.01: The result reveals that all types of Supervision are carried out on Primary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

H.02: There is no significant difference in the appraisalof supervision by male and female teachers on primary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study 

The importance of the programme or curricular activities cannot be over emphasized its effect on major decisions in educational activities cannot be underestimated in this regards, the significance of this study includes the following. 

(1) Acts as a mirror in which how primary school teachers should be effectively organized thereby walking up to the challenges of supervision. 

(2) Since efficiency and effectiveness is determined in terms of productivity and quality of primary school, this research attempts to measure the degree of teacher’s attainment with regards to teaching.

(3) This study will serve as a reference to other school teachers in the same allied field of study.

The valuable contribution of teachers to the progress of the educational system justifies the significance of this study.

1.7. Delimitation of the Study

This study will be limited to primary school teachers and that status of supervision in primary school in Etinan Local Government Area. The researcher shall carryout and collection of data from records and personnel’s in selected primary schools, findings and generalization made in the study will be limited to Etinan Local Government Area.

1.8 Assumption of the Study

The study assumes that: 

(1) There will be a favorable responses from both pupils and teachers.

(2) The responses on the develop instrument on status of supervision questionnaire 

1.9 Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following words will be interpreted according to the context for which they will be defined.

(1) Appraisal: This means to judge how good, bad, valuable and useful something is for this study, it will judge how well supervision is being carried out in primary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

(2) Supervise: To be in charge of something and making sure that something is done correctly or accordingly.

(3) Tired: To lose energy and become in need of rest.

(4) Status: To know the stature of something how it is being done.

(5) Evaluation: Information gathered for the purpose of the study.



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