EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT (A CASE STUDY OF ZAMFARA STATE NIGERIA)
ABSTRACT: The project effect of water pollution in the environment. The project aimed atdetermining the effect of water pollution on water quality in Zamfara State, determining the effects of water pollution on disease transmission among humans and animals in Zamfara State and finding out the causes of water pollution in Zamfara State Nigeria. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. The questionnaires were distributed to residents in Bakura local government area, Zamfara State, Nigeria. For this study, the survey research design was adopted. The choice of the design was informed by the objectives of the study as outlined in chapter one. This research design provides a quickly efficient and accurate means of assessing information about a population of interest. Findings from the search revealed that water quality as well as the transmission of diseases in Zamfara State is greatly influenced by the pollution of water bodies in the state. The sources of water pollution in the study area ranges from indiscriminate dumping of refuse and sewage in water bodies to factory effluents. The study recommends that there is equally the need to create an environmental monitoring network with an environmental data bank. There is need to improve on the current conservative policy option with regard to public education. The abject level of environmental deterioration noticeable in Nigeria gives a strong impression that the current level of knowledge of the public regarding public health matters is very low. There is also the need for supported active research into waste minimization strategies, waste avoidance technologies, cleaner production processes and zero emission concepts in Nigeria. Wastes that are pushed into waters could be turned to wealth with some research on recycling. Water pollution is not easy to solve. It is necessary that all hands must be on deck to fight it. This means that both government and citizen’s co-operation are needed to reduce water pollution to the barest minimum. Since water contamination comes from many different sources and has many numerous effects, every aspect of water pollution needs to be addressed.
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the StudyWater pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives (in) it. Water pollution is the contamination of water bodiesWater pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.Water occupies about 71% of the earth’s surface and yet it is one of the scarcest commodities especially in the developing countries of the world (Karikari and Ansa, 2006). They also stated that water is one of the most demanded of all urban and rural amenities and it is indispensable for man’s activities. Oketola, Adekolurejo and Osibanjo (2010) noted that water is abundant on the planet Earth as a whole, but fresh potable water is not always available at the right time or the right place for human or ecosystem use and water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource vital to life. Furthermore, they opined that water is distributed in nature as surface and ground water in different forms and sources which are oceans, seas, rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, wells, boreholes and springs. Rivers are among the oldest water bodies in the world (Higler, 2012). He also noted that in most urban-rural communities in the developing countries especially the SubSaharan Africa, surface waters (rivers, streams, and lakes) have been the most available sources of water used for domestic purposes. The water from these sources is contaminated with domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes and is likely to cause water related diseases (Ojekunle, 2012; Ayeni, 2014).Water is considered polluted if some substances or condition is present to such a degree that the water cannot be used for a specific purpose. Olaniran (1995) defined water pollution to be the presence of excessive amounts of a hazard (pollutants) in water in such a way that it is no long suitable for drinking, bathing, cooking or other uses. Pollution is the introduction of a contamination into the environment. It is created by industrial and commercial waster, agricultural practices, everyday human activities and most notably, models of transportation. No matter where you go and what you do, there are remnants earths environmental and its inhabitants in many ways. The three main types of pollution are: Land Pollution, Air Pollution and Water Pollution. Both for the purpose of this research, emphasis are on water pollution and control.It has been observed in recent times that the role the environment play to a nation‟s development process can not be relegated to the background. Apart from being the physical surrounding for natural habitats, the environment provide the basis for human exploits for agricultural, industrial, commercial, technological and tourism development of a society. For this and several other reasons, environmental issues now occupy a centre stage in academic discourse and other public fora both at the national and international levels. Recorded evidence has also shown that the environment represents a wide range of the external circumstances, conditions and the things that affect the existence and development of an individual, organism, group (Isaichei 1999) and/or society. In Nigeria for instance, environmental issues did not gain official prominence until the 1988 Koko toxic waste dumping saga which also brought to the fore the exigent need to establish the Nigeria Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Federal Ministry of Environment and other relevant agencies, ostensibly to tackle environmentally related issues, in the country. These include issues such as environmental pollution, sanitation, depletion of ozone layer, desertification, flooding, erosion, poverty, bush burning, deforestation, soil conservation etc. All these mentioned above are a pointer to the fact that issues of environment and infact environmental pollution which forms the basis of this paper has taken a centre stage in the nation‟s (Nigeria‟s) development process.It is against this backdrop that this study was aimed at investigating the effect of water pollution on the environment. 1.2 Statement of the ProblemThe need for good water quality has been of growing concern in Nigeria and worldwide as anthropogenic activities are fast degrading most water bodies, these activities which are agricultural practices, human domestic activities and dredging, all result in pollution of the natural habitats of aquatic organisms (Adeloye, 2004). Rivers serve as sinks to most wastes that result from these anthropogenic activities (Onyegeme and Ogunka, 2015). They further opined that as human population increases, more pressure is put on available water resources in meeting human water needs and for waste disposal.Water pollution has a dual effect on nature. It has negative effects on the living and also on the environment. Population explosion has resulted in huge generation and discharge of municipal waste. The combined discharge of industrial and municipal waste in highly populated concentration points has undesirable effects on human and other life forms. Water pollution has caused loss of sources of livelihood to some individuals. Health hazards emanating from the use of polluted water has equally caused more harm to most people in Nigeria. The effects of pollution on human beings and aquatic communities are many and varied. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries.It has affected governments, locally and internationally.There is a need for more research on the actual effects of water pollution on environmental health, including the health of humans. 1.3 Objectives of the StudyThe main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of water pollution on the environment. Specific objectives include;i. Todetermine the effect of water pollution on water quality in Zamfara State.ii. To determine the effects of water pollution on disease transmission among humans and animals in Zamfara Stateiii. To find out the causes of water pollution in Zamfara State Nigeria1.4 Research Questionsi. What is the effect of water pollution on water quality in Zamfara State?ii. What is the effect of water pollution on disease transmission among human and animals in Zamfara State?iii. What are the causes of water pollution in Zamfara State Nigeria?1.5 Significance of the StudyThe study will enable the concerned groups know how to tackle these problems in order to have less contaminated aquatic environment. The study will enable the policy makers and implementation agencies, project proponents, environmental authorities and other stakeholders to fully appreciate water pollution and the negative effects it has on sustainable development and give it due weight.This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.1.6 Scope of the StudyThis study is restricted to investigating the effect of water pollution on the environment in Zamfara State. The focus will be on water quality, disease transmission among human and animals. The study also covered the causes of water pollution in the study area. Secondary data was used to carry out this study.1.7 Limitations of the studyThe demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.1.8 Definition of TermsWater: Water is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients.Water Pollution: Water pollution occurs when harmful substances—often chemicals or microorganisms—contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean, aquifer, or other body of water, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment.Environment: The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth..