PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AND TEACHER'S EFFECTIVENESS (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN-WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA SECONDARY SCHOOLS, KWARA STATE)
The teachers are the key actors in the effectiveness of secondary school education. It is therefore important to ensure that they perform their roles as expected towards the achievement of educational goals and objectives.
Descriptive research design was adopted for this study. There are 702 teachers working in public secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara State shall be the target population of this study. 310 teachers was randomly selected out of 702 teachers in the Public secondary schools in Ilorin west Local Government area of Kwara State.
The following are the summary of findings: There is significant relationship between professional development practices and secondary school teachers’ effectiveness in Ilorin-west LGA, Kwara state; there is significant relationship between attendance of higher education and secondary school teachers’ effectiveness in Ilorin-west LGA, Kwara state; there is significant relationship between attendance of seminars and secondary school teachers’ effectiveness in Ilorin-west LGA, Kwara state; and there is significant relationship between attendance of conferences and secondary school teachers’ effectiveness in Ilorin-west LGA, Kwara state.
Hence it is necessary to do everything that is needed to be done to ensure that this is done. One of the things to be done in order to ensure teachers’ effectiveness is proper staff training. This is because the quality of teachers is enhanced by in-service training. As rightly said, teacher cannot perform more than their quality, as one cannot give what he doesn’t have. Teachers therefore need to regularly attend training in order to be more effective. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made, the government should ensure that the teachers of secondary schools are attend training regularly by making provision for them in form of cash.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vii
Background to the Study1-6
Statement of the Problem6-8
Purpose of the Study8-9
Significance of the Study11-12
Scope of the Study 12-13
Operational Definition of Terms 13
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of professional development programmes 14-22
Need for Professional Development of Teachers 22-25
Importance of professional development programmes 25-27
Concept of teacher effectiveness 27-29
Factors that can affect teacher effectiveness 29-34
Student academic performance in secondary schools 34-37
Conceptual framework of the study 37
Empirical studies 38-39
Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed 39-41
Population, sample and sampling techniques43
Procedure for data collection 45
Data analysis techniques45
PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Answering of Research Questions 46-49
Hypothesis Testing 49-55
Discussion of Findings 55-57
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings 58-59
Background to the Study
Globally, educating a nation remains the most paramount strategy for the development of the society throughout the world. It is pertinent to note that many studies on human capital development concur that it is the human resource of the nation not its capital or natural resources that ultimately determine the pace of its economic and social development, the most important institutional mechanism for developing human capital is formal education system of primary, secondary and tertiary training (Nsubuhu, 2003)
Teachers constitute an important factor in the implementation of the curriculum. The quality of teachers is known to be a key predictor of students’ performance, stressing this point. Hammad (2001) point out that the simple most important determinant of what student learn is what teacher known. Teaching as a profession, demand continuous update of knowledge and ability through training programmes. Such training programme include workshop conference seminar, induction and orientation for new staff, refresher courses, in-service training and so on.
The examination of professional development programmes and teacher effectiveness in Ilorin west local government area public secondary school, Kwara State in these second decade of the 21st century is more desirable with the world population reaching the zenith of 7.3 billion on July 31, 2015 (UNPF, 2015) the public secondary school are more challenged with the complex nature of the increasing diverse population of students given admission from different part of the state without commensurate training given to the teachers for them to live up to expectations and give highest standard of knowledge.
Professional development programmes as been accepted as effective method of increasing the knowledge and skill of teachers in order to enable teachers to teach more effectively according to Mohammed (2006) noted that many teachers after graduation have little or no opportunity for retraining and their training ends as soon as they graduate with no opportunity for updating their knowledge and skill by attending seminar, workshops and conferences that will subsequently enhance their knowledge and classroom skills. Subscribing to this view.Esu (1997) observed that there has been greater awareness that teachers who were trained some few years ago are not adequately equipped for effective teaching except complemented by in-service training. She further stated that, 2-3 years teacher preparation programme in higher institution of learning do not adequately prepare teachers for the teaching job. As there are too many ground to be covered in the teacher preparation programmes.
Apart from challenge of failing standard of education in public secondary school which inadequate professional development programme cause to the effectiveness of teachers in secondary school, we should not forget that, regular training of teachers become more necessary when we realize that the future of the country lies with the quality of its teachers. At least, teachers are the trainers of academics, technologists, technicians and professionals like doctors, engineers, journalist lawyers and accountant.
Hence for teachers to give their best with adequate standard needed within & internationally, more emphases should be place on teachers professional development programmes so as to enhance their effectiveness in teaching.
Apart from the fact that first class brains are moving out of teaching profession due to poor remunerations and emoluments, the entry qualification in to the colleges of education are the lowest compared with those for polytechnics and universities. Also, the improvement of the regular training programme for teacher under professional development programme scheme become more germane when we realize the need to integrate the new information technology in classrooms apart from the new scientific and technological inventions and innovations in different fields of endeavor.
To take care of the inadequacies of pre-service teacher preparation. The federal republic of Nigeria (2004) in National policy on education made provision for development of teachers by stating that teacher education shall continue to take cognizance of changes in methodology and in curriculum and that in service training for teachers shall be regulated. This therefore emphasizes the importance and the need for entry staff to be constantly renewed. Upgraded and updated in his or her knowledge to be refreshed and to keep abreast with the rapid changing society through professional development programmes and effectiveness of teachers.
According to Tajudeen (2008) an aptitude and capacity test was administered for total number of 19, 125 teachers in Kwara State public school in which 2,628 were university graduate. The teachers were given tests which were designed originally for primary four pupils in English and mathematics. At the end of the exercise only seven teachers out of the 19,125 crossed the minimum aptitude and capacity threshold. Only one out of 2,628 graduate teachers passed the test 10 graduates score outright zero. Abdullahi (2011) more worrying is that nearly 60 percent of teachers cannot read information or use the information in preparing a simple lesson note.
In view of above assertion, teaching is a life-long learning profession which will demand that teachers should be at fore front of learning due to ever dynamic and changing nature of the school needs. Student needs, societal needs, and development of professional practices. Professional development programmes and teacry school Kwara State should be encourage as continuous process which must last for the duration of the career of committed and dedicated teachers so as to enhance quality teaching and quality learning.
Statement of the Problem
Studies found challenges ahead teachers’ professional development and their effectiveness at school. Osho (2012) stresses that poor remunerations of teachers affect their professional development leading to the abandonment of their profession, no meaningful intellectual programme on the professional development of teachers with the various wars, political crises around the world, the new cultures of gay, lesbianism, and globalization as a form of western model to control the world poses a challenge to professional development of teachers and their effectiveness. Besides, Amos (2008) expresses that, in spite of desperate need for the effective staff development programmes in Nigeria, the caliber of many teachers working in the public and private secondary schools in Nigeria is nothing to write home about because teachers are usually inefficient in the performance of their duties. Similarly, Ola (2013) states that, the falling standard in the public educational system in Nigeria is as a result of the poor professional development of Nigerian teachers which the government and the teachers must gear up to avert.
Many efforts have been put in place to address the falling standard of Nigeria’s educational systems due to improper professional development programmes for the teachers. For example, in Ilorin West Local Government, various professional development programmes designed for teachers in public secondary school fail and do not succeed. Similarly, Government and many schools that organize professional development programmes for its teachers in the country do have wrong nomenclature that professional development programme require placing for people with high potentials in a training programme. Apart from this, the academic performance of students of public secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government has also being disappointing. Many students who enroll for West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) respectively in the local government perform woefully.
Indeed, there is an urgent and desperate need for the organization of efficient, effective and up to date professional development programmes in the state in line with the best global practice. Hence, it has been discovered that lack of efficient and skillful teachers have been the reason behind this sordid performance of students. This study is however imperative in order to investigate the relationship between professional development programmes and teacher effectiveness. This is the gap that this study fills since to the best of the researcher’s knowledge, there no study currently undertaken on this topic especially in Ilorin-west LGA, Kwara state.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between professional development programmes and teachers’ effectiveness in public secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area of Kwara state. The specific purposes include to investigate
1. The relationship between Higher Degree programme attendance and teacher effectiveness in public secondary school in Ilorin west local government.
2. The relationship between seminar attendance and teacher effectiveness in public Secondary in Ilorin West Local Government.
3.The Relationship between conference attendance and teachers effectiveness in public secondary school, Ilorin.
4.The Relationship between workshop attendance and teachers effectiveness in public secondary school, Ilorin.
1. What are the Professional development programmes organized for teachers in public secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara state?
2. How effective are the teachers in public secondary schools in Ilorin-west LGA, Kwara state?
To guide the study the following hypotheses were formulate for test.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between professional development programmes and teacher effectiveness in Ilorin West Local Government Area public secondary schools.
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between Higher Degree programme attendance and Teachers effectiveness in Ilorin West public Secondary Schools.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between Seminar Attendance and Teachers effectiveness in Ilorin West public Secondary Schools.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between conference attendance and Teachers effectiveness in Ilorin West public Secondary School
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between Workshop attendance and Teachers effectiveness in Ilorin West public Secondary School
Significance of the Study
This study would be of immense benefits to all the stakeholders in secondary schools, not only in Ilorin west but in Kwara state and Nigeria at large.
This finding will be an additional study to the current body of knowledge and debates on the concepts of professional development programmes and teacher effectiveness.
Secondly this finding will serve as contribution to government and private sector policies on professional development programmes to improving teachers’ effectiveness in teaching.
The findings of this study will benefit the Ilorin West Local Government, head teachers and other stakeholders in terms of providing suitably and timely professional development programmes for the teachers in this Local Government Area.
Lastly the finding will enhanceteacher's in-service training programme and academic performance of both public and private secondary school not only in Ilorin West Local Government but Nigeria at large to increase their knowledge and skills in teaching.
Scope of the Study
This study examined professional development programmes and teacher effectiveness in Ilorin west local government area public secondary school, Kwara State. The samples of this study included 310 teachers selected from a population of 702 the sample was selected using proportional sampling technique. The proportional sampling technique was done using Kreijcie and Morgan (1970) sample determination table.
Operational Definition of Terms
Professional Development: is measured in this study by teachers’ attendance of higher education, seminars, conferences and workshop.
Teachers Effectiveness: is the students’ academic performance in WASSCE for five years..