Increasing scarcity of fossil resources, increasing demand for petroleum fuels as well as increasing detrimental effects of extracting and using fossil fuels suggests alternatives. Biodiesel is a renewable, environmentally friendly, socially acceptable, technologically feasible and economically viable alternative fuel for diesel engines.This study investigates the comparative characterization of biodiesels produced by transesterification from Jatrpha curcas and Thevetia nerifolia seed oil using ratio 1:5, 1:6, and 1:7 of methanol and oil and base catalyst (NaOH), at temperature of 60oC.The percentage oil and biodiesel yield and the physco-chemical properties (PH, specific gravity, viscosity and flash point) of the methyl ester biodiesels were determined. The values of the biodiesel properties obtained were compared with America (ASTM) and European (EN) biodiesel standard. The data was analyzed using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD).The result of this study shows that reaction ratio 1:5 has the highest biodiesel yield of 91%, 82% and 70% from Jatropha, Thevetia and the mixture respectively. There is a significant difference in the biodiesel yield among the three oil sources. The flash point increases with increase in the specific gravity of the biodiesels. The highest and lowest viscosity value (mm2/s) of 6.44 and 1.2 was recorded for mixture (1:7) and Jatropha (1:7) respectively. The biodiesel with the highest and lowest viscosity value and the biodiesels from thevetia (1:6 and 1:7) do not meet the ASTM and EN specifications which ranges between 1.9-6.0 and 3.5-5.0 respectively. Others meet the ASTM Specification (Table 4 and 5). Finally, the result of this study shows that Jatropha curcas and Thevetia nerifolia are good potential sources of oil for biodiesel production.


TABLE OF CONTENT Title Page--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------i       Certification-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii       Dedication-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii       Acknowledgment ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv       Abstract-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------v Table of content------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------vi-xiii CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 1.1 Objective of the study--------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 1.2 Statement of problem----------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 1.3 Justification---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 1.4 Scope and limitation----------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature review---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 2.1 What is Biodiesel? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5-6 2.2 History of Biodiesel------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7                                             vi  2.3 Research works on Biodiesel------------------------------------------------------------------------8-10 2.4 Types of Biodiesel-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12  2.4.1Virgin oil Biodiesel---------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 2.4.2 Recycled oil Biodiesel ----------------------------------------------------------------------------14 2.4.3 Yellow Grease Biodiesel--------------------------------------------------------------------------14 2.5 Sources of Biodiesel----------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 2.6 Direct use of lipid in diesel engine----------------------------------------------------------------16 2.7 Reduction of oil viscosity by transesterification process---------------------------------------17 2.8 Factor affecting biodiesel production-------------------------------------------------------------18 2.8.1 Effect of temperature------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 2.8.2Effect of water and free fatty acid content------------------------------------------------------19 2.9 Jatropha seed oil for biodiesel----------------------------------------------------------------------19 2.9.1Thevetia seed oil for biodiesel--------------------------------------------------------------------20 2.10 Properties of biodiesel-----------------------------------------------------------------------------21 2.10.1Physical properties of biodiesel----------------------------------------------------------------22 2.10.2 Viscosity------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 2.10.3 Flash Point----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23                                             vii  2.10.4 Cetane Number-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 2.10.5 Cloud point and pour point---------------------------------------------------------------------23  2.10.6 Higher Combustion Efficiency of Biodiesel Fuel-------------------------------------------24 2.20 Engine Performance Tests with Biodiesel------------------------------------------------------24 2.30 Advantages of Biodiesel---------------------------------------------------------------------------25  2.30.1 Availability and Renewability of Biodiesel---------------------------------------------------26 2.30.1 Lower Emission from Biodiesel----------------------------------------------------------------26 2.30.2 Biodegradability of Biodiesel--------------------------------------------------------------------27  2.30.3 High Lubricity of Biodiesels---------------------------------------------------------------------28 2.30.4 Engine Performance Evaluation Using Biodiesel---------------------------------------------28  2.40 Disadvantage of Biodiesel ------------------------------------------------------------------------29 2.50 problems of Using Biodiesel-----------------------------------------------------------------------30 2.60 Biodiesel Impact on Economy----------------------------------------------------------------------30 2.70 Biodiesel Impact on Environment------------------------------------------------------------------32 CHAPTER THREE 3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS-------------------------------------------------------------------33 3.1 MATERIALS-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33                                             viii  3.2 Method of Oil Extraction-----------------------------------------------------------------------------33 3.3 Method of Biodiesel Production (transesterification) ------------------------------------------34   3.4 Determination-of Biodiesel Properties--------------------------------------------------------------35 3.4.1 PH determination------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35 3.4.2 Viscosity Determination----------------------------------------------------------------------------35 3.4.3 Specific gravity determination---------------------------------------------------------------------36 3.4.4 Flash Point Determination--------------------------------------------------------------------------36 3.5 Methods of Data Analysis----------------------------------------------------------------------------37 3.6 Data and result representation-----------------------------------------------------------------------38 CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION--------------------------------------------------------------------39 4.2 DISCUSSION-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.2.1Percentage Oil Yield--------------------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.2.2 PH-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.2.3 Biodiesel Yield--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.2.4 Specific Gravity-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------47                                             ix  4.2.5 Viscosity of the Methyl Esters---------------------------------------------------------47              4.2.6 Flash Point---------------------------------------------------------------------------------47 4.2.7 Analysis of Variance---------------------------------------------------------------------48 CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 CONCLUSION AND REMARKS------------------------------------------------------49-50             REFERENCES----------------------------------------------------------------------------------51-59

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION  The  non-renewable  fossil  fuel  resources  are  decreasing  daily  and  becoming  scarce.  The detrimental  effects  resulting  from  mining  and  using  fossil  fuel  resources  are  becoming unbearable. World increasing population and quest for global development in the transportation and market sector pose an increased demand for petroleum products such as (petro diesel). This consequently  results  to  increase  in  the  efficacies  of  mining  and  using  fossil  fuel  resources especially the global warming. Solution to the challenges on ground is alternatives to petroleum products  which  must  be  renewable,  technically  feasible,  economically  competitive  and environmentally acceptable. One  current  alternative  is  biodiesel  fuel. Biodiesel  fuels  are  attracting  increasing  attention globally as blending components or as direct replacement for diesel fuel in internal combustion engines. Biodiesel  can be defined  as fuel  for diesel  engines made  from  natural lipids  of plants and animals  and which  meet  the specification of ASTM  D6751.  In  chemical  term, biodiesel  is defined as a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. In  the  early  previous  years  of  biodiesel  production,  using  vegetable  oils  and  animal  fats  as alternative  to  petrodiesel  was  attempted.  More  than  100years  ago,  Rudolph  Diesel  tested vegetable oil as the fuel for his engine. Results of these early studies revealed success in the use of  vegetable  oils  as  engine  fuel  based  on  short  term  engine  performance  tests.  However, evaluation  of  long  term  engine  performance  showed  potential  hazards  due  to  high viscosity  of the oils Reid et al. (1982), Bacon et al. (1981), Schoedder (1981), and Yarbrough et al. (1981).                                             1  Converting  to  biodiesel is  one  of  the  options  to  reduce  the  viscosity  of  vegetable  oils Paugazhabadivu et  al.,  (2005). Attempts  to  reduce  viscosity  have  led  to  the  development  of different methods such  as,  dilution,  microemulsification,  pyrolysis, catalytic  cracking  and transesterification. The purpose of this study is to produce biodiesels from Jathropha curcas and Thevetia nerifolia seeds oil by transesterification using different reaction ratio of oil and alcohol and compare their physical properties (PH, kinematic viscosity, flash point, and specific gravity).  1.1 Objectives Of The Study 1.2 General Objective The  main  objective  of  this  study  is  to characterize and  compare,  the  biodiesels produced  from Jatropha curcas and Thevetia  nerifolia seeds  by  transesterification process. Specific Objectives are;   Ø To  produce  pure  plant  oil and methyl  esters  (biodiesels)  from J.curcas and       T.nerifolia seed oil by transesterification using different reaction ratios 1:5, 1:6     and 1:7 of methanol and the pure plant oil.   Ø To determine the physical properties (viscosity, specific gravity, PH and flash       point) of biodiesels from J.curcas, and T. nerifolia. seed oil   Ø To compare the oil and methyl ester yield from J.curcas, and T. nerifolia seeds                                              2    Ø To compare the characteristics of the biodiesels  produced from J.curcas, and     T. nerifolia seed oil    1.2 Statement of Problem Herbbert theory and prediction to America Petroleum Institute in 1956 made oil companies use his theory to predict future yield of existing oil fields. His prediction of oil world peak around 2006 has made governments realized that without prompt action, a global economic crisis is inevitable. Since petroleum  resources  are non-renewable,  hence  they  are  susceptible  to  being  diminished. Transportation  development  as  well  as  viability  and  expansion  of  global  market  would  be compromised as petroleum resources get diminished. Also, production and distribution of goods and services would become unrealistic scenario. Furthermore, the increasing mining activities of crude oil and increasing demand for crude oil products and their use are omens of increasing risk of global warming. All these resulting from the extraction and use of crude oil consequently pose great threat on the quality of our future lives and emphasize the urgent need of alternatives such as biodiesel.  1.3 JUSTIFICATION The  prevailing  and envisaged  efficacies  of  mining  and  using  crude  oil  resources  call  for urgent need for alternative. Biodiesel is a biofuel that is currently gaining global attention as promising  alternative  to petro diesel  which  is  renewable  and  environmentally  friendly.  In                                             3  addition  to  the  benefits  of  using  biodiesel,  another  important  requirement  of biodiesel  to completely replace  petrol  diesel  is  the  quantity  to  meet  the  demand.  This  quantity  is  a function  of  the  number  of  people  or  industries involved  in  production,  their  production capacity,  method  and  raw  materials  used  (oil  source).  It  is  therefore  necessary  to  research into  the best  method  and  oil  sources  for  quantitative  production  of  biodiesel.  Also,  studies have shown that various oily seeds have varying biodiesel potentials. This also necessitates the need to evaluate the biodiesel potential of various oily seeds to know the highly favored ones.  1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This  study  entails  production  of  biodiesel  from  the seeds of Jatropha  curcas and Thevetia nerifolia by transesterification process. Pure plant oils are extracted from the seeds of Jatropha curcas and Thevetia nerifolia. The oils are converted to biodiesels by reacting them with alcohol (methanol) at different ratios of 1:5, 1:6 and 1:7 using base (NaOH)  catalyst.  Pure  plant  oil  yield,  biodiesel  yield  would  be  determined  and biodiesel physical property tests; (specific gravity, viscosity, flash point and PH) of the biodiesels  would be carried  out.  The  test  values  are  then  compared  with America Standard for Test and Materials (ASTM) and European (EN) biodiesel standards. I  proposed  to  use  three  different  species  of  oil  sources  (Jatropha, Thevetia and Chrysophylum or Bahonea spp). But due difficulty in extracting oil from Chrysophylum and Bahonea,  I  used  oil  from Jatropha and Thevetia seeds.  However,  the  third treatment  formulated  from  mixture  of  equal  volume  of Jatropha and Thevetia oil  to generate an analyzable data with defined experiental design (RCBD).



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